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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits coastal areas, primarily around coral reefs. Found in schools in deep lagoons and along seaward reefs (Ref. 9710), mixing with other species of fusiliers (Ref. 48636). Juveniles used as tuna bait fish. Oviparous, with small pelagic eggs (Ref. 402).
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Distribution

Range Description

The Blue and Gold Fusilier, Caesio caerulaurea, is widespread in the tropical Indo-West Pacific from East Africa, including the Red Sea but not the Persian Gulf, to French Polynesia; north to southern Japan and south to Vanuatu and New Caledonia.
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Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Absent in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Mascarenes east to Marshall, Tuamotu and Marquesas islands, north to southern Japan, south to off northwestern Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 12 - 13
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Size

Maximum size: 350 mm TL
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Max. size

35.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 402))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits coastal areas, primarily around coral reefs.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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With 3-5 scales on cheek; 22-25 predorsal scales; dorsal and anal fins scaled. Supra-temporal band of scales often interrupted by a V-shaped scaleless zone anteriorly at midline. Upper peduncular scale rows usually 11 (10-12); lower peduncular scale rows usually 15 (14-15). A small process on each ventrolateral surface of basioccipital for attachment of Baudelot's ligament, a prominent concavity on ventral surface of basioccipital separating it from condyle. Post maxillary process single; posterior end of maxilla blunt. Color: Upper body bluish, lower body white to pale bluish. Golden band from above the eye, running straight along the body to upper caudal peduncle and continuing on the caudal fin to the tip of the upper lobe, becoming near black on the fin. A second similar streak in lower lobe (Ref. 48636).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The Blue and Gold Fusilier, Caesio caerulaurea, is found in coastal areas on coral reefs on the foreslope, outer reef channel, inter-reef soft substrate, and in lagoons. This species schools in large midwater aggregations, to feed on zooplankton. From what is known of the few species studied, reproduction is characterized by early sexual maturity, high fecundity, small pelagic eggs, spawning prolonged throughout most of the year, and mass spawning on a lunar cycle (FAO 1988).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 5 - 50 m (Ref. 30874)
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Depth range based on 27 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 14 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2.25 - 42
  Temperature range (°C): 25.709 - 29.205
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.116 - 1.008
  Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.312
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.482 - 4.727
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.327
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.721 - 4.452

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2.25 - 42

Temperature range (°C): 25.709 - 29.205

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.116 - 1.008

Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.312

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.482 - 4.727

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.327

Silicate (umol/l): 0.721 - 4.452
 
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Depth: 5 - 50m.
From 5 to 50 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Schools together with C. varilineata, C. striata, and Pterecaesio tile (Ref. 402).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Mating behavior is marked by six distinguishable patterns, namely: 1) nuzzling; 2) several males joining in courtship; 3) spiraling towards the surface; 4) pair spawning; 5) sperm release by sneakers; and 6) post spawning.Nuzzling is done about 1-1.5 hours before spawning. For most of the day the fish swam slowly in school. At nearly spawning time, one or two males approach a selected female and begin pecking and pushing her swollen abdomen with their snouts. Interruption happens at this stage resulting in spawners returning to the school. With less than an hour until spawning, 2-6 males may attempt to get their abdomen as close to the female's abdomen as possible. For the pair that completes this position, a spiraling ascent to the surface occurs followed by a release of both eggs and sperm while other males come in pursuit. These sneakers release sperm at the same spot where the initial pair had released their gametes. Some spawnings may occur without sneakers getting involved in the process (Ref. 37498).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Caesio caerulaurea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 22
Specimens with Barcodes: 47
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Caesio caerulaurea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 15 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCTGGAATGGTAGGCACTGCATTA---AGCCTACTCATTCGAGCAGAACTCAGCCAACCAGGAGCTCTTCTTGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTACAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCGTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATCGGAGGATTCGGGAACTGACTGATCCCACTAATG---ATCGGAGCTCCCGATATGGCATTTCCCCGAATAAATAATATGAGCTTTTGACTCCTCCCCCCATCCTTCCTACTCCTGCTTGCCTCCTCTGGCGTAGAGGCCGGGGCCGGGACTGGGTGAACAGTATATCCCCCGCTAGCAGGAAACCTAGCACACGCAGGAGCATCTGTTGACCTG---ACCATTTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTTGGGGCTATTAACTTTATCACAACAATCATCAATATGAAACCCCCTGCAATTTCCCAATATCAGACACCCCTGTTTGTTTGAGCCGTCCTAATTACTGCTGTTCTGCTCCTTCTTTCCCTCCCAGTTCTAGCAGCC---GGAATTACAATGCTTCTTACAGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCAGCGGGAGGAGGAGACCCCATCCTCTACCAACACCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Fricke, R.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.

Justification
The Blue and Gold Fusilier, Caesio caerulaurea, has been assessed as Least Concern. While this species is impacted by a number of threat processes, these threats are not known across its entire distribution. This species is found in abundance in a number of habitats across a wide geographic range. In addition the short generation length and population doubling time, makes this species more resilient to moderate harvesting. Monitoring of the harvest levels of this species is needed to ensure localised population declines do not become a widespread occurrence resulting in regional extinctions.
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Population

Population
In a study by Ohman et al. (1997) in the Bar Reef Marine Sanctuary, Sri Lanka this species was found to be common. 576 individuals were collected from 11 Porites dome sites.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The Blue and Gold Fusilier is moderately important in coastal fisheries, and is common in markets in Indonesia and the Philippines (FAO 1988). This species is caught by drive-in nets, gill nets, traps, trawls, and handlines. Juveniles are important as tuna baitfish in some areas (Randall 2005). This species is usually taken in multispecies catches of fusilier fish.

In Indonesia, blast-fishing is a common method used by fishers to harvest large numbers of schooling species such as siganids and caesionids (Fox and Erdmann 2000). In this study on blast fishing, a bomb was thrown into a school of caesionids and another at random over a reef slope. The first bomb targeted at the caesionids yielded 2,153 individuals, of which this species comprised 93% by weight. The second random bomb yielded 971 individuals of which only 43 were caesionids. Blast fishing is a significant threat when targeted at large schools of fish. Despite it being an illegal fishing method, it is still widespread through South East Asia (Fox and Erdmann 2000). However this species has a broad geographic range, is only fished in parts of its range, and is resilient to moderate levels of harvest therefore these threats are not considered to pose a significant threat to the global population at present.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for Caesio caerulaurea, however this species is known to occur in a number of marine protected areas.

Monitoring of the harvest levels and population numbers of this species is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; bait: occasionally
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Wikipedia

Caesio caerulaurea

The blue and gold fusilier or scissor-tailed fusilier, Caesio caerulaurea, is a species of marine fish in the family Caesionidae. It is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific area, including the Red Sea.[2] This fish can reach a maximum size of 35 cm in length, but its common length is 23.5 cm.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fricke, R. 2010. Caesio caerulaurea. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 September 2013.
  2. ^ http://eol.org/pages/217409/details#distribution
  3. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/918
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