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BiologyUsually found in small headwater streams with fast water associated with rapids and a boulder stream floor, with or without aquatic vegetation (Ref. 12524). Shoals occur in pools of small, clear, silt-free, rocky streams; reported to breathe air and to climb over damp rocks and up the sides of waterfalls during migrations (Ref. 13721, 52959). Can tolerate living out of the water for a long time if conditions are damp (Ref. 246, 5214, 13721). Scrapes diatoms, algae, and detritus from rock surfaces and also takes small aquatic insects such as mayfly nymphs and midge larvae; matures after a year; breeds in spring and summer, larger females bear up to 600 eggs (Ref. 52959). Moves on to flooded grasslands during the rainy season (Ref. 12524, 13337). Males and females have been observed swimming together, apparently joined side by side by means of the males' opercular disc (Ref. 12524).