IUCN threat status:

Near Threatened (NT)

Comprehensive Description

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Biology

Usually on sandy or gravelly bottoms from shoal waters to 90 m depth (Ref. 7251), with temperature range of 1.2-21°C. Benthic (Ref. 5951). Mostly inactive during daylight, but active under dark conditions (Ref. 10807). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.6-6.3 cm long and 2.7-4.8 cm wide, about 10-35 eggs are laid annually (Ref. 41250). Possesses an electric organ located in the tail region (Ref. 10807). Electric organ discharge (EOD) activity is intermittent (Ref. 10011) and seemed more frequent during dark periods (Ref. 10808). The individual EOD of this species is monophasic, head-negative, and lasts 70 ms (Ref. 10011).

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Source: FishBase

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