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BiologyPrefer sandy and gravelly bottoms in shoal water in the north range; to at least 90 m in south (Ref. 7251). Benthic (Ref. 5951). Those caught at Cans, Nova Scotia in Canada were found to have eaten dollarfish, cunner, and squid. Mostly inactive during daylight hours, but active under dark conditions (Ref. 10807). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 5.5-9.9 cm long and 3.5-5.3 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 7135, 71301).Electric organ discharge (EOD) activity seemed more frequent during dark periods (Ref. 10808). The individual EOD of this species is monophasic, head-negative, and lasts 217 ms (Ref. 10011). This species is used only for the manufacture of fish meal.