Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

Western central Atlantic: North Carolina to Florida Keys, throughout Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean coast of Central America, Lesser Antilles, Colombia, Suriname and northern Brazil (Gomes and Picado 2001, McEachran and Carvalho 2002).
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Western Atlantic, from Gulf of Mexico to Colombia and on the coast of Bahia.
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Western Atlantic: off Florida (Ref. 12965, 13608), northern coast of Colombia, and off Suriname (Ref. 13608), Brazil (Ref. 53436).
  • Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez 1992 Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales marinas y de aquas salobres de la costa septentrional de Sur América. FAO, Rome. 513 p. Preparado con el financiamento de la Comisión de Comunidades Europeas y de NORAD. (Ref. 5217)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5217&speccode=7 External link.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 840 mm WD
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Max. size

84.0 cm WD (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217))
  • Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez 1992 Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales marinas y de aquas salobres de la costa septentrional de Sur América. FAO, Rome. 513 p. Preparado con el financiamento de la Comisión de Comunidades Europeas y de NORAD. (Ref. 5217)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5217&speccode=7 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

Lack of thorns along the midbelt of the disc from the level of the axils of the pectoral fins to the vicinity of the spiracles. Tails widen rearward toward the dorsal fins. No interspace between the bases of the dorsal fins. Upper surface pale brown, darker along posterior margins of disc, pelvic fins and tail. Dorsal fins and caudal black. Lower surface margined with black rearward from the level of the mouth (Ref. 6902).
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Type Information

Type for Dipturus teevani
Catalog Number: USNM 153557
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1951
Locality: Gulf of Mexico: Off Pensacola, Florida., Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
Vessel: Oregon
  • Type:
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Holotype for Dipturus teevani
Catalog Number: USNM 196441
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1960
Locality: East of Matanzas Inlet, Florida., Florida, United States, Atlantic
Depth (m): 357 to 357
Vessel: Silver Bay
  • Holotype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Benthic along upper continental slope, at depths of 311–732 m (McEachran and Carvalho 2002). Maximum size about 84 cm total length (TL); males mature at 63 cm TL (McEachran and Carvalho 2002). Presumably oviparous, like other skates, but very little is known of this species’ life-history parameters.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 320 - 940m.
From 320 to 940 meters.
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 320 - 940 m (Ref. 13608)
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Depth range based on 92 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 37 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 165 - 777
  Temperature range (°C): 5.170 - 19.670
  Nitrate (umol/L): 5.397 - 34.180
  Salinity (PPS): 34.592 - 36.568
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.448 - 4.178
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.375 - 2.311
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.151 - 30.321

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 165 - 777

Temperature range (°C): 5.170 - 19.670

Nitrate (umol/L): 5.397 - 34.180

Salinity (PPS): 34.592 - 36.568

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.448 - 4.178

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.375 - 2.311

Silicate (umol/l): 2.151 - 30.321
 
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Brash, J.M. & McEachran, J.D.

Reviewer/s
Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Valenti, S.V. & Kyne, P.M. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
The Caribbean Skate (Dipturus teevani) is a medium-sized (to about 84 cm TL) deepwater skate found on the upper slope at depths of 311–732 m with a patchy distribution in the western central Atlantic. This species is assessed as Data Deficient due to the limited knowledge of its biology and capture in fisheries (although it is a potential bycatch of deepwater demersal fisheries). Given the uncertainties of the effects of fisheries, bycatch levels need to be quantified and monitored and the effect (if any) on the population determined.
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Population

Population
Population size unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Potential bycatch of deepwater demersal fisheries, although no information is available.
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Data deficient (DD)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no specific conservation measures in place at this time. Like many deepwater species, further biological and fisheries data are required to assess any future conservation needs. Where taken, catches require monitoring, particularly as deepwater fisheries expand worldwide.

The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and management of all chondrichthyan species in the region.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez 1992 Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales marinas y de aquas salobres de la costa septentrional de Sur América. FAO, Rome. 513 p. Preparado con el financiamento de la Comisión de Comunidades Europeas y de NORAD. (Ref. 5217)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5217&speccode=7 External link.
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Wikipedia

Dipturus teevani

The prickly brown ray (Dipturus teevani) is a species of cartilaginous fish in the family Rajidae. It is also known as the Caribbean skate.[1] The prickly brown ray is medium in size compared to other skates, and is known from a patchy, deep-water distribution in the western Atlantic Ocean.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The prickly brown ray's genus name, Dipturus, comes from the two Greek words: δι (di), meaning "two", and πτερύγια (pteryx), meaning fin.[2] Its species name is a reference to ichthyologist John Teevan, in appreciation for the help he gave the authors Bigelow and Schroeder when he worked as editor-in-chief for the book, Fishes of the Western Atlantic.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

The prickly brown ray was first given the name Raja teevani by its discoverers, Henry Bryant Bigelow and William Charles Schroeder, after being caught accidentally on a shrimp related expedition in the Gulf of Mexico in the winter of 1950-1951.[3] The species was encountered again by Bigelow and Schroeder in 1962, and specimens were given the name Raja floridana.[4] Animals under both names have since been moved to the genus Dipturus by Jacob and McEachran, but the name teevani was kept.[5]

Description[edit]

Prickly brown rays are considered medium sized rays, with a maximum total length of 84 cm, while males reach maturity around 63 cm.[1] They normally are light/pale brown on top and cream-colored to dusky on bottom.[6] Both the dorsal and caudal fins are black, and the dorsal fin is fully connected at its base.[6] The anterior margins and the trailing tips of the pectoral fins are both concave, and they are incised deeply near the tail.[6][7] Visible thorns (denticles) are only found near the eyes and in a single row on the top of the tail.[6] Like many other skates and rays, the eggs of the prickly brown ray have horn-like projections.[6]

Dipturus teevani can be distinguished from other rays in its genus by its long snout (22% of total length), which forms an acute angle with the pectoral fins (around 70°).[7] The length of the pectoral fin radials is roughly 40% the length of the snout.[7] The mouth is slightly arched on either side of the symphysis and the upper jaw contains 36 to 38 rows of teeth.[7] The oronasal pit is absent, and the anterior (the larger of the two) and posterior pelvic lobes are connected to each other by a fin-membrane.[7] The prickly brown ray's tail can be from 48% to 53% of the total length and is just as wide at its middle as its base.[7]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The prickly brown ray has a rather fragmented range in the western Atlantic, where it is native.[1] Large regions: from North Carolina to the Florida Keys, from the northern Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, Lesser Antilles, coasts of Nicaragua, Honduras and Colombia are known to support it.[6] They have also been found in smaller-sized areas of the southern Gulf of Mexico and the coasts of Guyana, Suriname, and French Guyana and northern Brazil.[1]

Prickly brown rays are usually bottom dwelling and live on the upper continental slope (specifically the southeast U.S. continental shelf and the north Brazil shelf) at depths from 311– 732 meters.[8][9] Despite their occurrence on two shelves, as well at the open Atlantic and Caribbean Sea, little is known about their life habits or behavior because they are seldom caught.[1][10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Brash, J.M. & McEachran, J.D. (2009). "Dipturus teevani)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  2. ^ Romero, P., 2002. An etymological dictionary of taxonomy. Madrid, unpublished.
  3. ^ a b Bigelow, H. B. and W. C. Schroeder 1951 (Dec.) Three new skates and a new chimaerid fish from the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 41 (no. 12): 383-392.
  4. ^ Bigelow, H. B. and W. C. Schroeder 1962 (31 Dec.) New and little known batoid fishes from the Western Atlantic. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 128 (no. 4): 161-244, Pl. 1.
  5. ^ Jacob, B.A. and J.D. McEachran, 1994. Status of two species of skates, Raja (Dipturus) teevani and R. (D.) floridana (Chondrichthyes: Rajoidei), from the western north Atlantic. Copeia 1994(2):433-445.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Kells, Val., Carpenter, Kent. A Field Guide to Coastal Fishes From Maine to Texas. 2011. Johns Hopkins University Press. pg 86.
  7. ^ a b c d e f McEachran, J., Fechhelm, J., Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Vol. 1. 1998. University of Texas Press, Austin. p. 158
  8. ^ Uyeno, T., K. Matsuura and E. Fujii (eds.), 1983. Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo, Japan. 519 p.
  9. ^ Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953. Sawfishes, guitarfishes, skates and rays. p. 1-514. In J. Tee-Van et al. (eds.) Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part two. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Yale Univ.
  10. ^ Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez, 1992. Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales marinas y de aquas salobres de la costa septentrional de Sur América. FAO, Rome. 513 p. Preparado con el financiamento de la Comisión de Comunidades Europeas y de NORAD.
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