Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Juveniles mimic Serrasalmus nattereri. Feeds on insects and decaying plants (Ref. 32894). Possesses powerful dentition that can cause serious bites (Ref. 4537). An important foodfish (Ref. 12202).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Native to Orinoco and Amazon basins, South America. Reported from 16 states (Fuller et al. 1999) but evidently not established in the United States.

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South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins (Ref. 39031). Reported from Argentina (Ref. 9086).
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Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 450 mm ---
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Max. size

88.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 25.0 kg (Ref. 2060); max. reported age: 28 years (Ref. 39139)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

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Environment

pelagic; freshwater; pH range: 4.8 - 6.8; dH range: 15
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Juveniles mimic Serrasalmus nattereri. Feeds mainly on fruits (Ref. 12371); also on insects and decaying plants (Ref. 32894).
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Diseases and Parasites

Spectatus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Rondonia Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Klossinemella Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Assuming standard charicid mode of reproduction. Replace ASAP.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Piaractus brachypomus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

TGAGCCGGAATAGTTGGAACGGCTCTT---AGCCTCTTAATTCGAGCGGAGCTAAGCCAACCCGGATCCCTCTTAGGTGAT---GACCAGATCTATAATGTTATCGTTACTGCGCACGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGAGGCTTCGGGAATTGATTGGTTCCCCTAATG---ATTGGTGCACCCGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAATAATATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTACCCCCATCCTTCCTTCTTCTGCTAGCATCCTCAGGAATCGAAGCCGGAGCAGGGACAGGCTGAACTGTATATCCCCCTCTTGCCGGTAACCTCGCACACGCGGGCGCCTCTGTTGACCTA---ACCATCTTTTCACTTCATCTTGCTGGGGTTTCCTCCATCCTTGGGGCTATTAACTTCATTACAACTATTATTAACATGAAGCCTCCAGCCATTTCACAATATCAAACACCCCTATTTGTATGAGCAGTCCTAATCACTGCCGTTCTTCTTCTTCTCTCGCTACCAGTTCTGGCTGCT---GGAATTACTATACTTCTGACAGATCGAAACCTTAACACCACATTCTTTGACCCCGCGGGGGGAGGAGACCC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Piaractus brachypomus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Piaractus brachypomus

Piaractus brachypomus (or Colossoma bidens, a synonym that used to be very popular)[1] is an Amazonic pacu, a close relative of piranhas and silver dollars. As with a number of other closely related species, P. brachypomus is often referred to as the red-bellied pacu. This has resulted in a great deal of confusion about the nature and needs of all the species involved, with the reputation and requirements of one frequently being wrongly attributed to the others. An unambiguous name for P. brachypomus is pirapitinga.[2]

Overall size[edit]

P. brachypomus can and will grow quickly under favourable conditions. The overall size to which it can grow remains a matter of considerable debate and no small amount of confusion. Much of the confusion stems from the fact that one species can and often is easily mistaken for another, and the size attainable in captivity is usually less than the size attainable in the wild. P. brachypomus is a comparatively smaller species. However, it can easily outgrow the majority of home aquaria: they are strong and robust fish which need a lot of swimming space and make very heavy demands of the filtration system.

Diet in captivity[edit]

P. brachypomus is mainly a herbivorous species, but, in fact, it's truer to say that it is an opportunist feeder. Stomach analyses of wild specimens show it to be primarily a herbivorous species, feeding on fruits, nuts and seeds. It is an opportunist, though, and also takes insects, zooplankton and small fish. In the aquarium offer, it a varied diet consisting of quality dried pellets or floating sticks, along with plenty of fruit and vegetables. Spinach, lettuce leaves, and fruit and vegetables such as apple, banana, peach, grapes, courgette, peas, cabbage and carrot all work well. [3] They will also sometimes "snatch" floating food, which results in a lot of splashing and makes a lid essential. In captivity, it is inadvisable to keep this species with anything small enough to be regarded as food, though they are usually safe around larger fish.

In aquariums[edit]

At larger sizes, the P. brachypomus needs a correspondingly large tank to thrive in captivity. The temperature of the water in which they are kept should be within 78–82 °F (26–28 °C) and the system should be well filtered and oxygenated. Larger P. brachypomus are sometimes classed as "monster fish" and find a place in aquariums which house other large fish. They tend to be timid and retiring and will retreat to cover if they feel insecure. Some squabbling may become apparent if they are kept in a group.It can take a lot of time for them to get accustomed to the aquarium, and may try to jump out frequently.[citation needed]

Skull from side and above

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c NAS – Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, Piaractus brachypomus
  2. ^ Gamefish of the Amazon Basin, Tambaqui and Pirapitinga
  3. ^ http://www.seriouslyfish.com/species/piaractus-brachypomus/
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Colossoma bidens and Colossoma brachypomum are widely used synonyms (see Fuller et al. 1999).

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