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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: hawkfish (English), halcón (Espanol)
 
Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus (Bleeker, 1855)


Coral hawkfish



Body oval, moderately compressed; snout pointed, with ~ straight profile; a fringe of cirri on rear edge of front nostril; bone under front of eye with partly free rear margin; mouth moderately large;  a row of small canines on jaws with a band of simple teeth inside those; teeth on center and sides of roof of mouth;  preopercle margin coarsely serrated;  operculum with 2 flat spines;  dorsal fin X, 12, continuous, 1st  soft ray prolonged, slightly notched between spines and rays,  membranes between spines deeply indented, each spine with a large bunch of cirri at the tip; anal fin III, 6; tail fin bluntly straight edged; lower 6 rays of the pectoral stout, with membranes deeply notched, distinctly longer than other rays, = top 1-2 & lower 6 pectoral rays unbranched; pelvic I, 5, its origin behind pectoral base; scales smooth, none between eyes,  3-4 rows of large scales on cheek; 41-45 on lateral line.

Whitish or pink with squarish red to brown blotches covering sides; head with smaller red to brown spots and blotches.

Size: grows to 10 cm.

Habitat: rocky and coral reefs.

Depth: 2-40 m, usually seen perched on coral heads in 3-15 m.



Widely distributed in the tropical Indo-Pacific; the central Gulf of California to Ecuador and all the offshore islands.
   
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Biology

Inhabit areas of rich coral growth and clear water of lagoon, channel, or seaward reefs from below the surge zone to depths of at least 40 m. They rest on, in, or beneath hard or soft corals. Feed on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 37955). Males are territorial and haremic (Ref. 37816).
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Distribution

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to East London, South Africa (Ref. 5469) and east to the Marquesan Islands, north to the Mariana Islands, south to New Caledonia. Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Colombia and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9289).
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Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa east to Panama, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 2 (S) - 40 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12 - 13; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 6
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Size

Length max (cm): 10.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 95 mm TL
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Max. size

10.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9289))
  • Bussing, W.A. and R.J. Lavenberg 1995 Cirrhitidae. Chinos, halcones. p. 1007-1010. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9289)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9289&speccode=5830 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

Highly variable in color from pale with grey to black blotches to pink with bright red blotches (Ref. 48636). Pale with horizontal rows of subquadrate dark brown spots; a row of smaller spots on LL between larger spots; small dark brown spots on head (Ref. 5469).
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Type Information

Paratype for Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus
Catalog Number: USNM 118111
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1938
Locality: Colombia: Gorgona Is., Gorgona Island, Colombia, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Paratype for Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus
Catalog Number: USNM 157375
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Andrews
Locality: Christmas Island
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 9710), usually 10 - 25 m (Ref. 27115)
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Depth range based on 120 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 65 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.915 - 80
  Temperature range (°C): 22.443 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 9.845
  Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 36.148
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.830 - 4.966
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.086 - 0.897
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 7.763

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.915 - 80

Temperature range (°C): 22.443 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 9.845

Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 36.148

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.830 - 4.966

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.086 - 0.897

Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 7.763
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 1 - 40m.
From 1 to 40 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits areas of rich coral growth and clear water of lagoon, channel, or seaward reefs from below the surge zone to depths of at least 40 m. Rests on, in, or beneath hard or soft corals. Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 37955). Males are territorial and haremic (Ref. 37816). Mobile-invertebrate feeder (Ref. 57615).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore, Planktivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), Pelagic crustacea, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Pelagic spawner (Ref. 31569). Spawning ascents into the water column occurred over a distance of 0.3 to1.0 m (Ref. 26305).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 55
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNTGTATTCGGTGCTTGAGCTGGAATAGTCGGCACAGCTCTAAGCCTTCTTATTCGAGCTGAACTCAGCCAACCGGGAGCCCTCCTTGGAGATGATCAGATCTATAATGTAATCGTTACAGCCCACGCCTTTGTAATGATTTTCTTTATGGTTATACCAATCATGATTGGTGGCTTTGGCAACTGACTAATCCCCCTAATGATTGGAGCCCCTGATATGGCATTCCCTCGAATGAATAACATGAGCTTCTGACTACTTCCCCCTTCATTCCTCCTGCTTCTGGCTTCCTCCGGGGTCGAAGCGGGGGCAGGTACAGGTTGAACCGTGTATCCCCCTCTAGCAGGCAACCTAGCTCATGCAGGGGCATCAGTAGACCTAACTATTTTTTCCCTCCATCTTGCAGGGATTTCATCAATTCTAGGGGCTATTAATTTTATTACCACTATTATTAATATGAAACCCCCTTCTATCTCCCAGTATCAAACTCCTCTGTTTGTTTGAGCTGTCCTTATTACCGCTGTGCTGCTTCTTCTCTCCCTTCCAGTCCTTGCTGCTGGCATTACAATGCTACTGACAGACCGAAATCTAAACACAACCTTCTTCGACCCTGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCTATTCTTTACCAACACTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus

The coral hawkfish, Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus, is a species of hawkfish found on tropical reefs of the Indo-Pacific and the eastern Pacific Ocean.[1] It grows to 10 cm (3.9 in) in total length.[2] It occasionally is found in the aquarium trade.

Taxonomic synonyms[edit]

  • Cirrhites oxycephalus Bleeker, 1855
  • Cirrhites grandimaculatus F. Liénard, 1891
  • Cirrhites murrayi Regan, 1909
  • Cirrhitichthys corallicola Tee-Van, 1940

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/5830
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus" in FishBase. April 2013 version.
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