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BiologyUsually found offshore but was also recorded from shore pools (Ref. 5299). Found in shoals (Ref. 27121). Juveniles epipelagic, adults migrate to deeper waters, and large adults are only recorded from demersal trawls (Ref. 27121). Feeds on phytoplankton and preyed upon by fishes, penguins, Cape cormorants, and fur seals (Ref. 27121). Although targeted by purse seines, it may also be caught incidentally in trawls (Ref. 27121). Prefer cooler waters of 11° to 15°C (Ref. 36731).