Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: night-sergeant (English), petaca (Espanol), pintaño (Espanol)
 
Abudefduf declivifrons (Gill, 1862)

Mexican night-sergeant



Body relatively deep, oblong, compressed; 1 pair of nostrils;  suborbital bone under eye usually not fused to cheek, its lower edge free, although sometimes partly joined to cheek and its lower border partly covered with scales; preopercle with smooth edge; mouth small, protrusible; teeth in single row, with notched or flat tips; gill rakers 19-23; a single continuous dorsal fin, XIII, 12-13; anal rays II, 10; pectoral rays 19; no projecting short spines at upper and lower base of tail fin; caudal fin forked; scales are moderately large and rough; body scaled, head largely scaled, as are the basal parts of the median fins; lateral line incomplete, ends under end of dorsal fin base; lateral-line scales 20-21.



Grey with 4-5 narrow whitish bars; most body scales with dark borders; narrow blackish bar or blackish wedge-shaped blotch on base of pectoral.

Size: reaches 18 cm.

Habitat: lives on rocky reefs exposed to wave action.

Depth: 0- 5 m.

Lower Baja and the central Gulf of California to Costa Rica; the Revillagigedos.

Has been considered a synonym of A. concolor, but a recent molecular study of Lessios et al 1995 (Copeia 1995: 277-288) confirmed that it is a separate species.
   
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Biology

Found in rocky reefs exposed to surge (Ref. 11482). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from lower Baja California and the central Gulf of California to Costa Rica, including Revillagigedo Island.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Acapulco, Mexico.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 5 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12 - 13; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 10
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Size

Length max (cm): 18.0 (S)
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Size

Max. size

18.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 11482))
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Diagnostic Description

Body gray with 4-5 narrow whitish bars. The suborbital often separated from preopercle; it is clearly demarcated by free lower edge, but sometimes partly attached to cheek with its lower border obscured by scales.
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Type Information

Type for Abudefduf declivifrons
Catalog Number: USNM 9332
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: Lower California, Cape San Lucas., Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This reef-associated species is found in shallow rocky reefs exposed to surge to depths of five m. It is also common in intertidal and shallow subtidal rocky habitats.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 5 m (Ref. 11482)
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Depth range based on 9 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.4 - 25.62
  Temperature range (°C): 21.311 - 21.311
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 0.144
  Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 34.228
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.074 - 5.074
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.352 - 0.352
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.264 - 3.264

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.4 - 25.62
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Omnivore

Diet: benthic microalgae, sessile crustacea, sessile worms, sessile molluscs
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Abudefduf declivifrons

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G. & Robertson, R.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is common in many parts of its range. There are no major threats for this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is locally common in suitable microhabitat throughout its range.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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