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BiologyPresent in calm coves or slow flowing sections of rivers with vegetation; not common in Lake Malawi, but abundant in larger rivers (Ref. 4967). Mostly found near river outlets and in the southern part of Lake Malawi; most frequently observed in the shallows of Lake Malawi; found over sandy and vegetated areas as well as over rocky substrates; piscivore, hunting mbuna and sand-dwelling haplochromines; mouthbrooder (Ref. 5595). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeds in summer (Ref. 7248).