Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

Recorded from the Eastern Indian Ocean off northern Western Australia, with the possibility of occurrence off Java, Indonesia.
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Off western Australia; possibly also Java.
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Eastern Indian Ocean: northern Western Australia and possibly Java, Indonesia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Vertebrae: 77 - 81
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Size

Max. size

25.8 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 45056)); 29.3 cm TL (female)
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Diagnostic Description

Body firm fusiform, almost cylindrical. Dorsal and ventral surfaces dark; pectoral fin pale distally. Head relatively long (> 21% TL). Mouth moderate, subequal to eye length. Upper eyelid with pale naked patch. Caudal peduncle rather elongate, ca 2-2.6 times greatest horizontal length of D1 including spine about a 5th of TL. Upper teeth of mature males with 7 cusps. Denticles short, robust, arranged in regular rows. Posterior branch of flank marking truncate and merging ventrally with post-pelvic marking. Anterior part of caudal base marking very broad, enveloping ventral surface and extending onto flanks; presence of oval central caudal marking; upper caudal marking comma-shaped. Monospondylous centra 36-38 (Ref. 45056).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Recorded from the continental slope in 430 to 550 m off Australia and possibly in 120 to 200 m off Indonesia (if it occurs off Java). Maximum size at least 30 cm total length (TL). Observed males of 25.1 to 25.8 cm TL are mature. Nothing else known of its biology.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathypelagic; marine; depth range 430 - 550 m (Ref. 45056)
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 500 - 550
  Temperature range (°C): 7.322 - 8.357
  Nitrate (umol/L): 21.712 - 27.992
  Salinity (PPS): 34.647 - 34.666
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.766 - 3.565
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.775 - 2.032
  Silicate (umol/l): 33.674 - 47.793

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 500 - 550

Temperature range (°C): 7.322 - 8.357

Nitrate (umol/L): 21.712 - 27.992

Salinity (PPS): 34.647 - 34.666

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.766 - 3.565

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.775 - 2.032

Silicate (umol/l): 33.674 - 47.793
 
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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental slope (Ref. 75154).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Etmopterus fusus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Etmopterus fusus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2003

Assessor/s
Kyne, P.M. & Cavanagh, R.D. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)

Reviewer/s
Seret, B. & Fowler, S. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
A small lantern shark currently recorded from off northwestern Western Australia on the continental slope, with the possibility of occurrence off Java, Indonesia. Although the species is known only from a few small localities, further exploratory trawls may indicate a wider distribution. Etmopterus fusus is assessed as Least Concern because there is little fishing in its known area of occurrence off Western Australia. However, deepwater trawl fisheries are expanding globally, including in Indonesian waters where its potential area of occurrence and depth range are heavily fished. These activities may place future pressure on this small species and if it is verified from the waters off Java, a higher category (of at least Near Threatened) should be considered.
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Population

Population
No available information on populations.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Presently only minor fishing activity in area of occurrence off Western Australia (Commonwealth managed North West Slope Trawl Fishery). The species is not targeted off Western Australia, and if captured is likely discarded (although survival rates are unknown and likely to be low from trawl captures). If the species occurs off Java, Indonesia, that area is likely to be subject to heavy trawling effort by Indonesian vessels (generally operating in less than 200 m depth which overlaps with the suspected depth range of the species off Java of 120 to 200 m). Quantitative data on Indonesian fisheries is required to assess its status in these waters if it is confirmed to be present there. Furthermore, given the global expansion of deepwater trawl fisheries additional pressure may be placed upon small and medium-sized etmopterid species in the future.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are currently no conservation actions in place for this species.
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Wikipedia

Pygmy lanternshark

The pygmy lanternshark, Etmopterus fusus, is a shark of the family Etmopteridae found in the eastern Indian Ocean from northern Western Australia and possibly Java, at depths of between 430 and 550 m. Its length is up to 26 cm.

Reproduction is ovoviviparous.

References[edit]

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