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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: angelshark (English), angelote (Espanol)
 
Squatina armata (Phillipi, 1887)

South Pacific angel shark    



Front half of body and head (including pectoral and pelvic fins) roughly diamond shaped and greatly flattened; with a distinct neck between the pectorals; head oval, relatively narrow behind; distance between nostrils distinctly less than that between eyes; nostril barbell narrow, notched and convex; eyes relatively small (6.3 times in space between them) on top of head, with prominent spiracles behind them; mouth at front; pectoral and pelvic fins greatly enlarged; dorsal fins small, about equal sized, situated near tail fin; lower lobe of tail larger; denticles on lower surface almost entirely covering the pectoral and pelvic fins, with a transverse band on chest, a large patch on the abdomen and almost entirely covering the underside of the tail. Holotype with heavy thorns on snout, between eyes and spiracles; a double row of large hooked thorns down midback and between dorsal fins; large thorns on front edge of pectorals.


Grey to grey-brown, mottled and blotched with olive; irregular dusky areas on tail and dorsal fins; lower surface white.

Reaches 113 cm.

On sandy bottoms.

Depth range 3-200m.

A basically temperate species that ranges from Costa Rica to Chile. 
   
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Biology

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
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Distribution

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, TEP non-endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, Peruvian province, primarily, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Southeast Pacific: Chile. Not in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
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Southeastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 3 (S) - 200 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 113.0 (S)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Chirichigno and Cornejo (2001) reported that the species is benthic on sandy bottoms at depths of 30 to 75 m. Maximum size to 150 cm total length (TL) (Chirichigno and Cornejo 2001). Nothing known of its biology.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine
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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 67.5 - 197

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 67.5 - 197
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Live birth, No pelagic larva, No pelagic phase
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Lamilla, J. & Romero, M.

Reviewer/s
Kyne, P.M., Cavanagh, R.D. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Squatina armata is tentatively recognised as distinct from S. californica, and, for the purpose of this assessment, it is considered a separate regional endemic, pending urgent taxonomic resolution of Eastern Pacific angel sharks. This species occurs from Colombia south to Chile on the continental shelf. Nothing is known of its biology. In Peru, angel sharks are of little importance to fisheries where landings have fluctuated with no apparent trend from 1964 to 1999, averaging at 267 metric tonnes per year. Information is not available from other countries within its range. Given declines in other Squatina species globally, careful monitoring of catches is required, as are life history studies.
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IUCN Red List: Listed, Data deficient

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
In Peru, this species is of little importance to fisheries, with an average catch of 267 metric tons (mt) per year taken off Peru between 1964 and 1999, and no long-term trend apparent. Landings were very unsteady during this period. The catch ranged from 55 mt per year (in 1992) to 1,615 mt per year (in 1986). There were two peaks, one in 1982 (1,126 mt) and the other in 1986. It is not clear why these peaks were followed by abrupt falls in 1982?83 and 1986?87, respectively, but this may be related to El Niño events.

Information is not available from other countries.
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Data deficient (DD)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No conservation measures are in place for this species. Given declines in other Squatina species globally, careful monitoring of catches is required, as is life history studies. Taxonomic resolution and validation of the species is required.
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Wikipedia

Chilean angelshark

The Chilean angelshark, Squatina armata, is an angel shark of the family Squatinidae found in the subtropical waters of Chile, that grows up to 1.03 metres (3 ft 5 in) in length. The holotype is lost. Reproduction is ovoviviparous.

References[edit]

  1. ^ N. Bailly (2013). "Squatina armata (Philippi, 1887)". In Nicolas Bailly. FishBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved October 7, 2013. 
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