Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Oviparous, distinct pairing possibly like other members of the same family (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

Recorded from the Yangtze River, Zhu Jiang River, Ganjiang River and the Xiangjiang River of China. It is found in most areas of Fujiang, Guangdong, Jixiang, Hunan, Sichuan, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei provinces.
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Asia: Yangtze river, China.
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Yangtze River basin to Pearl River, China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7; Analsoft rays: 11 - 13
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Size

Max. size

23.3 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 33423))
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Diagnostic Description

Gray and brownish body, no spot. Barbels are of different lengths; nasal barbel reaches the middle of the eye, maxillary barbel reaches the base of the pectoral fin, the outer mandibular barbel reaches the gill edge, inner mandibular barbel is shorter than the outer one, but longer than the nasal barbel. Only one chamber in the swimming bladder. Adipose fin starts right behind the dorsal fin, till the base of the caudal fin. Caudal fin is 2/5 of the length of the adipose fin (Ref.33423)
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Ecology

Habitat

Yangtze River Demersal Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of demersal species in the Yangtze River system. Demersal river fish are found at the river bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton.

The upper Yangtze basin consists chiefly of Paleozoic limestone and terrigenous sedimentary rock, with some granitic material. The most downstream element of the upper Yangtze basin is often termed the Sichuan Basin; here the Yangtze cuts through Triassic and Permian material before entering the Three Gorges. The Three Gorges area is a stretch of the Yangtze that runs approximately 660 kilometers, terminating at the site of the Three Gorges Dam. Prior to construction of the dam, the Three Gorges area was a site of exceptional natural beauty; after dam construction the gorge areas were filled with approximately 100 meters in depth of Yangtze water, and considerable amounts of the watershed were graded.

The lower Yangtze basin consists of anabranching river structures and Pleistocene coastal terraces. Prior to development of the Three Gorges Dam, the Yangtze Delta was replenished with a copious sediment load reaching the river mouth; however, the dam has now severely limited the natural flow and deposition of sediment to the delta region. Consequently, the integrity of the delta is been compromised, with scouring exceeding deposition, and the very stability of the delta is endangered.

Lower and middle basins of the Yangtze carry heavy pollutant loads. In the lower Yangtze basin nitrate levels are high, measuring at about 1000 tons per day at Datong; these levels accrue from high applications of chemical fertilizer applied and also considerable loadings of untreated sewage due to the large human population of the basin, with correspondingly little infrastructure for sewage treatment.

Heavy metal concentrations are also high in the lower Yangtze, with measurements of dissolved lead at 0.078 microgram/liter; cadmium (0.024 microgram/liter), chromium (0.57 microgram/liter), copper (1.9 microgram/liter), and nickel (0.50 microgram/liter). Levels of dissolved arsenic have been measured at 3.3 microgram/liter) and zinc at 1.5 microgram/liter), both notably higher by factors of 5.5 and 2.5 respectively than other typical large world rivers. In Yangtze River suspended sediment, arsenic comprises 31 microgram/gram, lead comprises 83 microgram/gram, and nickel comprises 52 micrograms/gram of sediment content

There are several large native demersal fish found in the Yangtze River, chiefly the 250 centimeter (cm) long endangered Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus), the 120 cm Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), the 200 cm Giant mottled eel (Anguilla marmorata), the 122 cm black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), the 300 cm Chinese paddlefish (Psephurus gladius), and the 100 cm Silurus meridionalis. Furthermore, there are a few exceptionally large native benthopelagic fishes found in the Yangtze, namely, the 105 cm Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), the 200 cm Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), the 200 cm yellowcheek (Elopichthys bambusa), the 145 cm common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), the 122 cm Mongolian redfin (Chanodichthys mongolicus), the 102 cm predatory carp (Chanodichthys erythropterus) and the 100 cm snakehead (Channa argus argus).. The demersal fish Silurus meridionalis also is found as a Yangtze River endemic species.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It it found in torrent rivers, in gravel areas. Found in both main channels and in tributaries.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hemibagrus macropterus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Chen, X.-Y.

Reviewer/s
Allen, D., Zhao, H., Cui, K. & Zhou, W.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species known form a number of river basins in southern China; Yangtze River, Zhu Jiang River, Ganjiang River and the Xiangjiang River. Although the species is harvested, it is not thought to be a threat at present, and it is assessed as Least Concern
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Population

Population
Although no data exist on trends in population size, it is believed that the population is stable at this time.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Dams across the region may impact upon the species habitat through changes to the flow regime of the river; the species has been found after the construction of dams, so the degree of impact is uncertain (the species is not a long distance migrant). Pollution from agriculture, industry and urban areas are additional threats.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Fisheries management is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Shiming, L., C. Kunzheng, Z. Huihong, C. Ke, G. Lian, F. Jinghua, Z. Xueying, T. Xiaoli, Z. Jia’en, Y. Yanqong, L. Huashou and H. Hongzhi 2011 Freshwater ecosystem services and biodiversity values of the Beijiang River, China. p. 4-122. In Report on highland aquatic ecosystem services and biodiversity values, including livelihoods, trade, policy and conservation oriented inputs to two global online databases. Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development (HighARCS) Project. Deliverable 3.1, Project No. 213015 of the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme. 363 p. Work Package 3 report. South China Agricultural University. (Ref. 89718)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=89718&speccode=15879 External link.
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