Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found mostly in quiet, shallow waters with soft bottoms (Ref. 26041), but also inhabits running waters (Ref. 11225). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Stays in schools of 20 to 30 individuals. Because of its ability to breathe air intestinally, it takes air 1 to 45 times per hour (Ref. 35381). Nocturnal (Ref. 35381). Feeds on worms, crustaceans, insects and plant matter (Ref. 7020). Spawning occurs when the physical-chemical quality of the water changes with the onset of the rainy season (Ref. 35381). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539).
  • Burgess, W.E. 1989 An atlas of freshwater and marine catfishes. A preliminary survey of the Siluriformes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey (USA). 784 p. (Ref. 6868)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

South America: Colombia and Trinidad to La Plata River basin east of the Andes.
  • Reis, R.E. 2003 Callichthyidae (Armored catfishes). p. 291-309. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 37395)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Colombia and Trinidad to La Plata River basin east of the Andes: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; introduced in Hawaiian Islands.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7; Anal spines: 1 - 2; Analsoft rays: 5 - 6
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 70 mm ---
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

7.5 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 26041))
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Short and rounded snout (1.9 to 2.1 times in TL); body height 2.5 to 2.9 times in SL; interorbital space 2 to 2.2 times in TL; pectoral spine (3.5 to 4.5 times in SL) with a slightly denticulated internal side; 23-24 dorsal plates; 20-22 ventral plates; 2-5 pre-adipose plates; body color yellow or pink, white belly, blue-grey over head and back; fins yellow or pink and immaculate (Ref. 35381). A brownish-orange patch is usually present on the head, just before the dorsal fin, and is their most distinctive feature when viewed from above in the stream (Ref. 44091).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Syntype; Paralectotype for Hoplosoma aeneum Gill
Catalog Number: USNM 205649
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): T. Gill
Locality: Trinidad, West Indies., Trinidad, Windward Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic
  • Syntype: Gill, T. N. 1858. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 6 (10-13): 403 (reprint p. 43).; Paralectotype: Nijssen, H. & Isbrucker, I. J. 1980. Bijdragen tot de dierkunde. 50 (1): 207.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Syntype; Lectotype for Hoplosoma aeneum Gill
Catalog Number: USNM 1116
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Photograph; Radiograph
Collector(s): T. Gill
Locality: Trinidad, West Indies., Trinidad, Windward Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic
  • Syntype: Gill, T. N. 1858. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 6 (10-13): 403 (reprint p. 43).; Lectotype: Nijssen, H. & Isbrucker, I. J. 1980. Bijdragen tot de dierkunde. 50 (1): 207.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Syntype; Paralectotype for Hoplosoma aeneum Gill
Catalog Number: USNM 92819
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): T. Gill
Locality: Trinidad, West Indies., Trinidad, Windward Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic
  • Syntype: Gill, T. N. 1858. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 6 (10-13): 403 (reprint p. 43).; Paralectotype: Nijssen, H. & Isbrucker, I. J. 1980. Bijdragen tot de dierkunde. 50 (1): 207.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; freshwater; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Found mostly in quiet, shallow waters with soft bottoms (Ref. 26041). Inhabits running waters (Ref. 11225). Feeds on worms, crustaceans, insects and plant matter.
  • Burgess, W.E. 1989 An atlas of freshwater and marine catfishes. A preliminary survey of the Siluriformes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey (USA). 784 p. (Ref. 6868)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Partner Web Site: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diseases and Parasites

Procamallanus Infection 33. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Moravec, F. 1998 Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the neotropical region. 464 p. Praha, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. (Ref. 51153)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fin-rot Disease (late stage). Bacterial diseases
  • Bassleer, G. 1997 Color guide of tropical fish diseases: on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium. 272 p. (Ref. 41805)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fin Rot (early stage). Bacterial diseases
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Bacterial Infections (general). Bacterial diseases
  • Bassleer, G. 1997 Color guide of tropical fish diseases: on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium. 272 p. (Ref. 41805)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

During the spawning process, corys assume the so-called "T" position, with the male assuming the top part of the "T" and the femalae oriented perpendicular to him (Ref. 44091). The male stirs up the female with his barbels on her head and back; the female collects sperm in its mouth; lays down about 20 eggs (yellow in color, 1 mm in size) which she collects with her pelvic fins, then fertilizes them and fixes them to submerged rocks or plants. Such sequence takes place for 2-3 hours, thus resulting in spawning of 100-200 eggs. Several spawnings are possible in the same season. At 22°C, hatching occurs after 5 days, the vitellin being absorbed 3 days later (Ref. 35381).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Corydoras cf. aeneus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Corydoras aeneus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Corydoras aeneus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 68
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: highly commercial
  • Mills, D. and G. Vevers 1989 The Tetra encyclopedia of freshwater tropical aquarium fishes. Tetra Press, New Jersey. 208 p. (Ref. 7020)
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Bronze corydoras

The bronze corydoras (Corydoras aeneus), green corydoras, bronze catfish, lightspot corydoras or wavy catfish is a tropical freshwater fish in the "armored catfish" often kept in captivity by fish keepers. (Callichthyidae) family. It is widely distributed in South America on the eastern side of the Andes, from Colombia and Trinidad to the Río de la Plata basin.[1] It was originally described as Hoplosoma aeneum by Theodore Gill in 1858 and has also been referred to as Callichthys aeneus.[1]

Appearance and anatomy[edit]

The adult size is 6½ cm for males and a slightly larger 7 cm for females (2½ to 2¾ inches). Their average life span is 10 years. It has a yellow or pink body, white belly, and is blue-grey over its head and back. Its fins are yellow or pink and immaculate. In common with most Corydoras the dorsal, pectoral and adipose fins have an additional sharp barb and have a mild poison which causes fish which try to attack them to get stung. A brownish-orange patch is usually present on the head, just before the dorsal fin, and is its most distinctive feature when viewed from above in the stream. Their upper sides are often a greenish color, which is the reason another common name for this fish is the green corydoras.

Like many other catfishes, females are larger than males in this species.[2]

Ecology[edit]

They are found in quiet, shallow waters with soft bottoms that can sometimes be heavily polluted by clouds of disturbed mud from the bottom, but it also inhabits running waters.[1] In its native habitat, it inhabits waters with a temperature range of 25 °C to 28 °C (77 °F to 82 °F), pH 6.0–8.0, and hardness 5 to 19 DGH.[1] Like most members of the Corydoras genus, these catfish have a unique method of coping with the low oxygen content that prevails in such environments. In addition to utilizing their gills like any other fish, they rapidly come to the surface of the water and draw air in through their mouth. This air is then absorbed through the wall of the intestine and any surplus air is expelled through the vent.[1] It typically stays in schools of 20 to 30 individuals.[1] It feeds on worms, benthic crustaceans, insects, and plant matter.[1]

Reproduction[edit]

Reproduction occurs with the onset of the rainy season, which changes the water chemistry.[1] Females spawn 10–20 egg-clutches with multiple males at a time, but an entire egg clutch is inseminated by sperm of a single male.[2]

In laboratory experiments, bronze cories have been observed to have a unique method of insemination. When these fish reproduce, the male will present his abdomen to the female. The female will attach her mouth to the male's genital opening, creating the well-known "T-position" many Corydoras exhibit during courtship. The female will then drink the sperm. The sperm rapidly moves through her intestines and is discharged together with her eggs into a pouch formed by her pelvic fins. The female can then swim away and deposit the pouch somewhere else alone. Because the T-position is exhibited in other species than just C. aeneus, it is likely that they also exhibit this behavior.[3] In the wild, eggs are laid on waterweeds.[2]

Males do not form territories or compete over females; interference between males might only happen when two males present their abdomens simultaneously. On the other hand, females do not choose between males. Mating is more or less random; therefore, male reproductive success is directly related to courtship frequency.[2]

The eggs of C. aeneus exhibit a unique surface pattern with small villi-like protuberances which resemble attaching-filaments of teleost eggs. These structures allow the eggs to be adhesive and stick to a specific place or to each other. The presence of these structures may be related to the turbid habitat in which this species lives.[4]

In the aquarium[edit]

Bronze corys are probably the most popular Corydoras species.[5] It is annually bred and shipped in large quantities all over the world[6] It is easily bred and is produced in commercial quantities in the United States, Europe, and Singapore. Most of the available fish are therefore domestic strains. Wild imports are reported to be less easy to breed.[citation needed]

They are a hardy and useful aquarium fish despite having a coloration that is by no means striking or unusual. Many aquarists are fascinated by the habits of these fish. They ceaselessly comb the bottom of the aquarium for food and therefore disturb it slightly, sending up detritus and waste material that has settled loosely on the bottom. They prefer being kept in groups of 5 or more, being sociable fish and are ideal fish for a community tank.[1] Other Corydoras species can be placed in the same aquarium, and despite the strong resemblance many species bear to one another, the species will tend to separate out and only move about among their own kind.

Corydoras aeneus is not particular about the composition of the water. Adequate conditions are a temperature range of 20 to 28 °C (68 to 82 °F), pH of 6.0–8.0, and hardness of 2–30 DGH. The water should have no salt added to it.[5] A fairly dense growth of plants with a number of possible hiding places is greatly appreciated. Corys are easy to feed, they are omnivores eating all flake and pelleted food and also live and frozen foods. When it comes to sperm, then the female glues the eggs, only a few in number, to the chosen substrate and then (sometimes) quickly touches them with her mouth. After several acts of spawning, which span a total of two to three hours, one female will have produced up to 200 eggs. Frequently, two males are used for each female, as one male has difficulty fertilizing all the eggs. The eggs gradually grow darker in color, and just prior to hatching (ranging from three days at 28 °C to a week at 20 °C) they turn dark brown. The fry keep to the bottom of the tank, feeding on detritus and any fine foods available. The parents may spawn again within two to three weeks.

Albino corydoras[edit]

Albino cory

The albino variety is an albino variety of the bronze corydoras that has been developed for the aquarium trade, with a pale pink or orange body and red eyes. It is physically similar to normally-colored individuals, although some breeders report that the fry are a little slower to develop.[citation needed] Others say that the albinos are practically blind and that the males are somewhat sterile, although this may be due to extensive inbreeding.[citation needed] Albino bronze corys are frequently injected with bright dye (via a needle) and sold in aquariums. This controversial practice is known as "painting" or "juicing" fish.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2011). "Corydoras aeneus" in FishBase. December 2011 version.
  2. ^ a b c d Kohda, Masanori; Yonebayashi, Kanako; Nakamura, Miyako; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Seki, Satoko; Takahashi, Daisuke; Takeyama, Tomohiro (2002). "Male reproductive success in a promiscuous armoured catfish Corydoras aeneus (Callichthyidae)". Environmental Biology of Fishes 63 (3): 281–287. doi:10.1023/A:1014317009892. 
  3. ^ Kohda, Masanori; Tanimura, Masayo; Kikue-Nakamura, Miyako; Yamagishi, Satoshi (1995). "Sperm drinking by female catfishes: a novel mode of insemination" (PDF). Environmental Biology of Fishes (Kluwer Academic Publishers) 42 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1007/BF00002344. 
  4. ^ Huysentruyt, Frank; Adriaens, Dominque (2005). "Adhesive structures in the eggs of Corydoras aeneus (Gill, 1858; Callichthyidae)". Journal of Fish Biology 66 (3): 871–876. doi:10.1111/j.0022-1112.2005.00647.x. 
  5. ^ a b Axelrod, Herbert, R. (1996). Exotic Tropical Fishes. T.F.H. Publications. ISBN 0-87666-543-1. 
  6. ^ Huysentruyt, Frank; Adriaens, Dominique (2005). "Descriptive osteology of Corydoras aeneus (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae)" (PDF). Cybium 29 (3): 261–273. 

Bibliography[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!