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BiologyOccurs in bays, estuaries, and near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Usually solitary (Ref. 12951). Feeds on clams, oysters, worms, and crabs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Although the spine on the tail is capable of inflicting a painful wound, the poison is quickly neutralized by immersion of the injured area in hot water (Ref. 26346).