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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in rich coastal to outer reefs, usually along deep walls with caves, rich with invertebrate growth such as large sponges or soft corals (Ref. 48635). A secretive species. Active nocturnally in shallow water and diurnally in deeper water (Ref. 5222). Often seen with the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes elegans (Ref. 37816). Feeds mainly on fishes (Ref. 5222). Solitary or in small groups (Ref 90102). Reaches sexual maturity at 25 cm SL (Ref. 089707).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Distribution

Range Description

Cephalopholis sexmaculata is an Indo-Pacific species, occurring from the Red Sea to South Africa, and eastward to Tahiti (French Polynesia). It has been reported from the Arafura Sea (Russel and Houston 1989). It has also been recorded from Yemen (Rouphael et al. 1998). Reports by Heemstra and Randall (1984) from the Gulf of Oman, Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka are unsubstantiated. It is absent from the Persian Gulf and is not yet known from Lakshadweep Islands (India).
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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to French Polynesia. Reported from the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). Reports by Heemstra & Randall (1984, Ref. 3153) from the Gulf of Oman, Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka are unsubstantiated. Absent from the Persian Gulf and is not yet known from Lakshadweep Islands.
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Line, Marquesas and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia) at 23°30'S, New Caledonia and Lord Howe Isla
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Size

Maximum size: 480 mm TL
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Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)); max. published weight: 7,000 g (Ref. 30874)
  • Allen, G.R. and R.C. Steene 1988 Fishes of Christmas Island Indian Ocean. Christmas Island Natural History Association, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, 6798, Australia. 197 p. (Ref. 30874)
  • Randall, J.E. 1995 Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 439 p. (Ref. 11441)
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Diagnostic Description

Characterized by orange-red color with six brown saddles/bars on side with pale areas in between; head, body and fins with small blue spots; body scales ctenoid, including abdomen; greatest depth of body 2.6-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.9-2.3 in head length (Ref 90102); interorbital area flat to slightly convex; dorsal head profile of large specimens distinctly concave above eyes; rounded preopercle, finely serrate in young, virtually smooth in large adults, lower edge fleshy; small serrae in subopercle and interopercle mostly hidden by skin; scaly maxilla, reaching past eye (Ref. 089707).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Description

A secretive species hiding in caves and crevices on the outer reef slope. Active nocturnally in shallow water and diurnally in deeper water. Feeds mainly on fishes.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
General
Cephalopholis sexmaculata is a reef-associated species ranging in depth from 6 to 150 m. It is found in rich coastal to outer reefs, usually along deep walls with caves, rich with invertebrate growth such as large sponges or soft corals (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001). The species is also found inside the lagoon (Sluka 2002). Cephalopholis sexmaculata is a secretive species that is active nocturnally in shallow water and diurnally in deeper water (Shpigel and Fishelson 1991b).

Feeding
Cephalopholis sexmaculata feeds mainly on fishes (Heemstra and Randall 1993).

Growth and maturity
Length at maturity = 24.91 cm (Mangi and Roberts 2006).
Maximum total length = 50 cm TL (Randall 1995); Linf = 220 mm SL, K =0.63 (Fry et al. 2006).
150 to 240 mm SL = 2 to 8 years (Fry et al. 2006).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 6 - 150 m (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 11 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7.32 - 100
  Temperature range (°C): 25.782 - 28.897
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 2.589
  Salinity (PPS): 34.171 - 35.911
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.080 - 4.759
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.349
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 3.090

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7.32 - 100

Temperature range (°C): 25.782 - 28.897

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 2.589

Salinity (PPS): 34.171 - 35.911

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.080 - 4.759

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.349

Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 3.090
 
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Depth: 6 - 150m.
From 6 to 150 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Sixspot Grouper.  (Ruppell, 1830)  
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific Region (Ref. 9137).
  • Blaber, S.J.M., D.A. Milton, N.J.F. Rawlinson, G. Tiroba and P.V. Nichols 1990 Diets of lagoon fishes of the Solomon Islands: Predators of tuna baitfish and trophic effects of baitfishing on the subsistence fishery. Fish. Res. 8(3):263-286. (Ref. 30531)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cephalopholis sexmaculata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNGGAACAGCTCTCAGCCTATTAATCCGGGCTGAGCTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCTTTACTCGGTGATGATCAAATCTACAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGTGGGTTCGGAAACTGGCTCATTCCACTAATAATTGGGGCCCCCGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAATATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCTCCATCCTTCCTACTTCTGCTAGCTTCCTCTGGGGTAGAAGCCGGTGCCGGTACTGGCTGAACAGTGTATCCGCCTTTAGCCGGTAATCTAGCCCACGCAGGCGCTTCTGTTGACCTTACTATCTTCTCCCTGCACTTAGCAGGAATCTCATCAATTTTAGGGGCGATTAACTTCATTACTACTATTATTAACATAAAACCTCCTGCTATCTCCCAATATCAGACACCCTTATTTGTTTGAGCTGTACTCATCACAGCCGTCCTTCTTCTCCTCTCCCTCCCTGTCCTTGCCGCCGGTATTACAATACTTCTAACAGACCGAAATCTTAACACCACTTTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGCGGAGGAGACCCGATCCTTTACCAACACCTATTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cephalopholis sexmaculata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Cabanban, A.S., Myers, R., Yeeting, B., Pollard, D., Kulbicki, M. & Fennessy, S.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Cephalopholis sexmaculata is listed as Least Concern owing to its widespread distribution, its occurrence in marine protected areas and its deepwater and cryptic habits. However, it is a known component of the live reef food fish trade, with known overfishing of juveniles in parts of its range, and degradation of coral reef habitat. This species warrants close monitoring.
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Population

Population
General
Cephalopholis sexmaculata is common in specific reef habitats on outer coral reef slopes (caves and crevices) (Randall and Heemstra 1991) and also on deep walls in caves (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001).

Fisheries-independent data
It was uncommon in shallow water visual censuses along the Great Barrier Reef (Pears 2005). It was also not common in New Caledonia (0.01% of the grouper catch) (IRD database). It is generally rare in survey and catch statistics (Myers pers comm.). In visual surveys in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia, ths species was found only on the outer barrier reef (density=0.2 fish/1,000 m²). (IRD database).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
General
The main threats to Cephalopholis sexmaculata are overfishing and habitat loss.

Fisheries-dependent
Cephalopholis sexmaculata is incidental and small-scale fishery and found in the Live Reef Fish Trade (LRFT). It is captured for food in artisinal and subsistence fisheries as juveniles (14.4 cm) in Kenya (Mangi and Roberts 2006).

Northern Marianas catch data was 120 kg/yr in 1950s and dropped to and fluctuated around 25 kg/yr from 1986 to 2002 under increasing fishing pressure (Zeller 2006).

It is commercially important in Papua New Guinea but assessed as extremely vulnerable to commercial fishing (Fry et al. 2006). It constitutes less than 1% of catch in Pohnpei (Rhodes and Tupper 2007).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Cephalopholis sexmaculata is found in marine protected areas throughout its range, including the Great Barrier Reef. No specific measures for the species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes
  • Allen, G.R. and R.C. Steene 1988 Fishes of Christmas Island Indian Ocean. Christmas Island Natural History Association, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, 6798, Australia. 197 p. (Ref. 30874)
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
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Wikipedia

Cephalopholis sexmaculata

Cephalopholis sexmaculata, known commonly as the Six-blotch Hind, is a species of marine fish in the family Serranidae.

The Six-blotch Hind is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific area, Red Sea included.[2]

The Six-blotch Hind is a medium size fish and can reach a maximum size of 50 cm length .[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cabanban, A.S., Myers, R., Yeeting, B., Pollard, D., Kulbicki, M. & Fennessy, S. 2008. Cephalopholis sexmaculata. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 September 2013.
  2. ^ http://eol.org/pages/216583/details#distribution
  3. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/6453
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