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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in rich coastal to outer reefs, usually along deep walls with caves, rich with invertebrate growth such as large sponges or soft corals (Ref. 48635). A secretive species. Active nocturnally in shallow water and diurnally in deeper water (Ref. 5222). Often seen with the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes elegans (Ref. 37816). Feeds mainly on fishes (Ref. 5222). Solitary or in small groups (Ref 90102). Reaches sexual maturity at 25 cm SL (Ref. 089707).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to French Polynesia. Reported from the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). Reports by Heemstra & Randall (1984, Ref. 3153) from the Gulf of Oman, Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka are unsubstantiated. Absent from the Persian Gulf and is not yet known from Lakshadweep Islands.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Line, Marquesas and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia) at 23°30'S, New Caledonia and Lord Howe Isla
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
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Size

Maximum size: 480 mm TL
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Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)); max. published weight: 7,000 g (Ref. 30874)
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Diagnostic Description

Characterized by orange-red color with six brown saddles/bars on side with pale areas in between; head, body and fins with small blue spots; body scales ctenoid, including abdomen; greatest depth of body 2.6-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.9-2.3 in head length (Ref. 90102); interorbital area flat to slightly convex; dorsal head profile of large specimens distinctly concave above eyes; rounded preopercle, finely serrate in young, virtually smooth in large adults, lower edge fleshy; small serrae in subopercle and interopercle mostly hidden by skin; scaly maxilla, reaching past eye (Ref. 089707).
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Description

A secretive species hiding in caves and crevices on the outer reef slope. Active nocturnally in shallow water and diurnally in deeper water. Feeds mainly on fishes.
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Characterized by orange-red color with six brown saddles/bars on side with pale areas in between; head, body and fins with small blue spots; body scales ctenoid, including abdomen; greatest depth of body 2.6-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.9-2.3 in head length (Ref 90102); interorbital area flat to slightly convex; dorsal head profile of large specimens distinctly concave above eyes; rounded preopercle, finely serrate in young, virtually smooth in large adults, lower edge fleshy; small serrae in subopercle and interopercle mostly hidden by skin; scaly maxilla, reaching past eye (Ref. 089707).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 11 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7.32 - 100
  Temperature range (°C): 25.782 - 28.897
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 2.589
  Salinity (PPS): 34.171 - 35.911
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.080 - 4.759
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.349
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 3.090

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7.32 - 100

Temperature range (°C): 25.782 - 28.897

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 2.589

Salinity (PPS): 34.171 - 35.911

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.080 - 4.759

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.349

Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 3.090
 
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 6 - 150 m (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 11 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7.32 - 100
  Temperature range (°C): 25.782 - 28.897
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 2.589
  Salinity (PPS): 34.171 - 35.911
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.080 - 4.759
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.349
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 3.090

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7.32 - 100

Temperature range (°C): 25.782 - 28.897

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 2.589

Salinity (PPS): 34.171 - 35.911

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.080 - 4.759

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.349

Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 3.090
 
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Depth: 6 - 150m.
From 6 to 150 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Sixspot Grouper.  (Ruppell, 1830)  
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific Region (Ref. 9137).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cephalopholis sexmaculata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNGGAACAGCTCTCAGCCTATTAATCCGGGCTGAGCTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCTTTACTCGGTGATGATCAAATCTACAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGTGGGTTCGGAAACTGGCTCATTCCACTAATAATTGGGGCCCCCGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAATATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCTCCATCCTTCCTACTTCTGCTAGCTTCCTCTGGGGTAGAAGCCGGTGCCGGTACTGGCTGAACAGTGTATCCGCCTTTAGCCGGTAATCTAGCCCACGCAGGCGCTTCTGTTGACCTTACTATCTTCTCCCTGCACTTAGCAGGAATCTCATCAATTTTAGGGGCGATTAACTTCATTACTACTATTATTAACATAAAACCTCCTGCTATCTCCCAATATCAGACACCCTTATTTGTTTGAGCTGTACTCATCACAGCCGTCCTTCTTCTCCTCTCCCTCCCTGTCCTTGCCGCCGGTATTACAATACTTCTAACAGACCGAAATCTTAACACCACTTTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGCGGAGGAGACCCGATCCTTTACCAACACCTATTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cephalopholis sexmaculata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Least Concern (LC)
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes
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Wikipedia

Cephalopholis sexmaculata

Cephalopholis sexmaculata, known commonly as the Six-blotch Hind, is a species of marine fish in the family Serranidae.

The Six-blotch Hind is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific area, Red Sea included.[2]

The Six-blotch Hind is a medium size fish and can reach a maximum size of 50 cm length .[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cabanban, A.S., Myers, R., Yeeting, B., Pollard, D., Kulbicki, M. & Fennessy, S. 2008. Cephalopholis sexmaculata. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 September 2013.
  2. ^ http://eol.org/pages/216583/details#distribution
  3. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/6453

External links[edit]

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