Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on rocky reefs (Ref. 9563). Is a selective forager which prefers to feed on small, hard-shelled animals like crabs and gastropods (Ref. 26966).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known in Australia from southern New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and eastern South Australia. Throughout New Zealand, including Three Kings Is, Stewart I. and Snares Is. (Francis 1996).
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Eastern Indian Ocean and Southwest Pacific: southern Australia, from South Australia to New South Wales, including Tasmania and throughout New Zealand.
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Southwestern Pacific: Australia (New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia) and New Zealand.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 380 mm ---
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Max. size

38.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563))
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A large species, to about 365 mm SL. It is common on rocky reefs in depths to about 90 m (Graham 1938). Spawning occurs during the same period in New Zealand and Australia from about August to December (Barrett 1995a, Denny and Schiel 2002, Harwood and Lokman 2006). Spawning in southern New Zealand occurs once each lunar cycle during the spawning season, resulting in four batches of eggs each year around the time of the full moon (Harwood and Lokman 2006). Annual fecundity in southern New Zealand fish ranged between 298,000 (± 139,600) and 447,000 (± 209 400) eggs/kg body weight (Harwood and Lokman 2006).

Sexually dichromatic, monandric and secondary gonochorists (Barrett 1995, Denny and Schiel 2002). The sex of purple wrasse appears to be genetically based and is determined before sexual maturity is reached (Barrett 1995a, Denny and Schiel 2002).

Early life history stages described by Welsford et al. (2004). Males and females attain maturity at around 15 cm TL. Maximum age in Tasmania is reported as about 20 years (Barrett 1995a, Ewing et al. 2003) and in Victoria 16 years (Smith et al. 2003). The relationship between fork length and age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function (L∞ = 368 mm, K = 0.116 and t0 = -1.87 for males and L∞ = 385.7 mm, K = 0.109 and t0 = -1.96 for females) (Ewing et al. 2003).

This species is site attached, but, males may range over at least 1,700 m2 of reef (Barrett 1995b).

Hybrid specimens of this species and both N. celidotus and N. inscriptus have been reported (Ayling 1980, Russell 1988). Food items consists of crabs, hermit crabs, limpets and gastropod molluscs (Russell 1983, 1988).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine
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Depth range based on 23 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 8 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 13 - 37
  Temperature range (°C): 12.186 - 15.129
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.205 - 3.798
  Salinity (PPS): 34.588 - 35.069
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.699 - 6.161
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.258 - 0.429
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.977 - 2.830

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 13 - 37

Temperature range (°C): 12.186 - 15.129

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.205 - 3.798

Salinity (PPS): 34.588 - 35.069

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.699 - 6.161

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.258 - 0.429

Silicate (umol/l): 1.977 - 2.830
 
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs inshore (Ref. 75154). Found on rocky reefs (Ref. 9563). Is a selective forager which prefers to feed on small, hard-shelled animals like crabs and gastropods (Ref. 26966).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Notolabrus fucicola

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Russell, B. & Pollard, D.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This is a widely distributed species, common throughout its range. A large species, long-lived which is highly fecund. Although fished commercially in Tasmania and Victoria, the fishery is relatively well-managed. Elsewhere, this species is not fished commercially. The life history of this species brings concerns that fishing pressure, if increased, will cause declines in the population over significant parts of its range in the future. Currently, this species is listed as Least Concern. It should be reassessed in four years.
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Population

Population
This species is common throughout its range. Populations are thought to be curently stable, however there are some concerns that fishing pressure, if continued at current levels, may cause populations to decline in the future (B. Russell pers. comm. 2008).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Major theats are fishing (domestic live fish trade) in Tasmania and Victoria. Taken together with bluethroat wrasse, Notolabrus tetricus, mainly by traps and to a lesser degree by handlines. There is an apparent market preference for bluethroat wrasse, but purple wrasse are more robust for live handling (Ziegler et al. 2008).

Live fish fishery developed in 1990’s in Tasmania and Victoria. Catches are not separately reported, but total catches of purple (N. fucicola) and bluethroat (N. tetricus) wrasses in Tasmania dramatically increased from 70 t (1991/92) to 100 t (1992/93). Since 1995/96, wrasse catches were relatively stable and consistently over 70 t. Over the last five years, they have generally increased and reached 108 t in 2006/07, largely due to higher handline catches (Ziegler et al. 2008). In Victoria, catches peaked in 1998 at about 90 t, and subsequently declined to about 50 t. Effort also has declined since 1998, but overall catch rates are being maintained in Victoria (Smith et al. 2003).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species has a legal minimum length (LML) and the commercial fishery is capped at 51 licenses in Victoria. The minimum legal size is 30 cm with no upper limit, and 58 fishing licences have been issued in Tasmania. This species distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

However, research is needed on population numbers and with regard to fisheries, trends should also be monitored.
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Wikipedia

Banded parrotfish

The banded parrotfish, yellow-saddled wrasse or New Zealand banded wrasse, Notolabrus fucicola, is a species of wrasse native to the eastern Indian Ocean, off eastern Australia and all around New Zealand on rocky, weedy reef areas. Its length is between 30 and 60 cm and large specimens, which might be over 25 years old, weigh almost 5 kg. Aging work in New Zealand suggested these wrasses can live at least 35 years.

This is the largest wrasse in New Zealand waters. It is a moderately deep-bodied fish of variable colouring, young being reddish-brown mottled with green and orange, whilst adults are green-brown tinged with purple with indistinct yellowish vertical bars on the body and fins. They are generalist predators with powerful canine teeth that enable them to remove chitons, limpets, and barnacles from rocks. They can also crush and eat mollusks, crabs, and sea urchins. Size-specific changes in their diets occur: Small fish (100–180 mm) eat mostly amphipods and isopods, whereas larger fish (> 180 mm) eat mainly bivalves, crabs, and gastropods.

Banded parrotfish are asynchronous spawners and follow the typical labrid spring-summer seasonal pattern of reproduction from July to December. Compared with other New Zealand labrids that are protogynous hermaphrodites, this wrasse was found to be a secondary gonochorist, where individuals change sex before maturation. It is a dichromatic species, but not sexually dimorphic. It is also monandric where only one morphological male type is present. Despite finding no transitional gonads, particular environmental or social conditions possibly could induce sex change in at least a small proportion of fishes.

These fish may be caught on a handline and fight well.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Russell, B. & Pollard, D. 2010. Notolabrus fucicola. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 13 November 2013.
  • "Notolabrus fucicola". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 11 March 2006. 
  • Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Notolabrus fucicola" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
  • Tony Ayling & Geoffrey Cox, Collins Guide to the Sea Fishes of New Zealand, (William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1982) ISBN 0-00-216987-8
  • Chris Denny & David Schiel, Feeding ecology of the banded wrasse Notolabrus fucicola (Labridae) in southern New Zealand: prey items, seasonal differences, and ontogenetic variation, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2001, Vol. 35: 925-933
  • Chris Denny & David Schiel, Reproductive biology and population structure of the banded wrasse, Notolabrus fucicola (Labridae) around Kaikoura, New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2002, Vol. 36: 555-563
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