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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults inhabit coral reefs, including sheltered lagoons and outer reefs (Ref. 30573). Usually found singly, often adjacent to steep outer reef slopes, but occasionally found in groups (Ref. 9710). Feed mainly on fishes, but also take shrimps, crabs, amphipods, stomatopods, gastropods and urochordates. Large fish from oceanic areas in the western Pacific are often ciguatoxic, e.g., in Tuvalu (Ref. 9513). Utilized fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9987). Juveniles mimic Chromis damselfishes (Ref. 90102).
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesas and Line islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. More common around oceanic islands than in continental areas.
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Kiribati (Line Islands) and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to off northern Western Australia, Lord Howe Island and Austral Islands.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 14; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
  • Allen, G.R. and J.H. Talbot 1985 Review of the snappers of the genus Lutjanus (Pisces Lutjanidae) from the Indo-Pacific with the description of a new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (11):87. (Ref. 469)
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Size

Maximum size: 900 mm TL
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Max. size

90.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987)); max. published weight: 12.5 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 55 years (Ref. 72420)
  • Frimodt, C. 1995 Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial warmwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, England. 215 p. (Ref. 9987)
  • International Game Fish Association 1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA. (Ref. 4699)
  • Marriott, R.J., B.D. Mapstone and G.A. Begg 2007 Age-specific demographic parameters, and their implications for management of the red bass, Lutjanus bohar (Forsskal 1775): A large, long-lived reef fish. Fish. Res. 83:204-215. (Ref. 72420)
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Diagnostic Description

Snout somewhat pointed. Dorsal profile of head rounded. Preorbital bone relatively broad; its width usually greater than eye diameter. A deep groove or pit runs from the nostrils to the front of the eye. Preopercular notch and knob moderately developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Young and some adults with two silvery-white spots on back. Large adults mostly plain red (Ref. 48635). Description: Body dark reddish brown, stripes dark and faint (in adults), caudal end of body and the tail may be white (in juveniles) mimicking Chromis damselfishes, spots dorsal 2 siilvery-white; pectoral fins upper edge dar; iris yellow. Snout somewhat pointed. Head dorsal profile rounded. Preorbital bone broad, width usually greater than eye diameter. Deep groove or pit from nostrils to front of the eye. Preopercular notch and knob moderately developed. Body large, robust, depth 2.4-2.9 in SL. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above LL. (Ref. 48635, 90102).
  • Allen, G.R. and J.H. Talbot 1985 Review of the snappers of the genus Lutjanus (Pisces Lutjanidae) from the Indo-Pacific with the description of a new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (11):87. (Ref. 469)
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Description

Inhabits coral reefs, including sheltered lagoons and outer reefs. Usually found solitarily, often adjacent to steep outer reef slopes. Feeds mainly on fishes, but also takes shrimps, crabs, amphipods, stomatopods, gastropods and urochordates. Large fish from oceanic areas in the western Pacific are often ciguatoxic, e.g. in Tuvalu (Ref. 9513). Utilized fresh and dried-salted (Re. 9987). Reported to grow up 90 cm in length (Ref. 9987). The young have been repported to mimic certain damselfishes of the genus Chromis, such as C. ternatensis (Bleeker) and thereby get closer to their prey <307>.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 4 - 180 m (Ref. 37816), usually 10 - 70 m (Ref. 30573)
  • Myers, R.F. 1999 Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia, 3rd revised and expanded edition. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 330 p. (Ref. 37816)
  • Sommer, C., W. Schneider and J.-M. Poutiers 1996 FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Somalia. FAO, Rome. 376 p. (Ref. 30573)
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Depth range based on 162 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 146 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 503
  Temperature range (°C): 9.095 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 29.200
  Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.312
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.437 - 4.727
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 2.047
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 36.497

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 503

Temperature range (°C): 9.095 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 29.200

Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.312

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.437 - 4.727

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 2.047

Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 36.497
 
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Depth: 1 - 180m.
From 1 to 180 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Twinspot snapper.  (Forsskal, 1775)  Attains 80 cm. Found on coral-reefs to at least 70 metres Red Sea and tropical Indo-West Pacific south to Durban.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs inshore (Ref. 75154). Inhabits coral reefs, including sheltered lagoons and outer reefs (Ref. 30573, 58652). Enters lake (Ref. 13446). Usually found singly, often adjacent to steep outer reef slopes, but occasionally found in groups (Ref. 9710). Feeds mainly on fishes, but also takes shrimps, crabs, amphipods, stomatopods, gastropods and urochordates. Large fish from oceanic areas in the western Pacific are often ciguatoxic, e.g., in Tuvalu (Ref. 9513).
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
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Diseases and Parasites

Stephanostomum Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and S. Lumanlan-Mayo 1997 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 369, 102 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 26129)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lutjanus bohar

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTCGGTGCTTGAGCCGGTATAGTAGGCACGGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAGCTAAGCCAACCAGGAGCCCTTCTTGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATCATGATTGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTGATCCCATTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCCGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATGAATAATATGAGCTTTTGACTCCTTCCCCCATCCTTCCTACTACTACTCGCCTCATCTGGAGTAGAAGCCGGTGCCGGAACAGGGTGAACAGTTTACCCTCCCTTAGCAGGAAACCTAGCACACGCAGGAGCGTCTGTTGACCTA---ACCATTTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCGGGTGTTTCTTCAATTCTAGGGGCCATCAACTTTATTACAACGATCATCAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCACAATATCAAACACCACTATTCGTTTGAGCCGTCCTAATCACTGCTGTTCTGCTTCTTCTGTCCCTTCCTGTACTAGCTGCC---GGAATTACAATGCTCCTTACAGATCGAAATCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCAGCCGGAGGAGGAGACCCAATCCTTTATCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTTGG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lutjanus bohar

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 27
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 9 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland and National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
  • International Game Fish Association 1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA. (Ref. 4699)
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Wikipedia

Two-spot red snapper

The two-spot red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, is a species of snapper native to the Indian Ocean from the African coast to the western Pacific Ocean. It is a coral reef inhabitant, being found at depths from 4 to 180 m (13 to 591 ft), though usually between 10 and 70 m (33 and 230 ft). Adult snappers often form large schools on the outer reefs or above sandy areas, mainly to form spawning aggregations. This species is a commercially important species and is also sought-after as a game fish. It is also known as the red bass, twinspot snapper or Bohar snapper.[1]

Description[edit]

The two-spot red snapper can reach a length of 90 cm (35 in), though most do not exceed 76 cm (30 in). The greatest recorded weight for this species is 12.5 kg (28 lb). Juveniles and some adults have two white spots on their dorsal fins, while larger adults lose the spots and become mostly red.

It is a long-lived and slow-growing species which reaches maturity at 8-9 years, and the oldest recorded individual is 56.[2] The fish is carnivorous, mostly feeding on other fishes, crustaceans and molluscs.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Lutjanus bohar" in FishBase. December 2013 version.
  2. ^ a b Bray, Dianne. "Red Bass, Lutjanus bohar". Fishes of Australia. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
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