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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on outermost continental shelves and upper slopes (Ref. 247). Feeds on bony fish, squid, shrimp and crabs (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205), with 10-13 in a litter, size at birth about 18 cm (Ref. 6871). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 247.
  • Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 247)
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Distribution

Range Description

Endemic to southern South America off Argentina and Chile. Given its slope occurrence, its available habitat and hence range is relatively restricted.
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Southeast Pacific and Southwest Atlantic: southern Chile, southern Argentina, and the Falkland Islands Reported from off the western Cape coast but the identity of South African specimens is questionable (the correct species may be Etmopterus baxteri Garrick, 1957). Presence in the Western Pacific uncertain (Ref. 31367). Eastern hemisphere records doubtful (Compagno 1999, pers.comm.).
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Additions and corrections for the 1995 impression. p. v-xv. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Revised Edition of Smiths' Sea Fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 11228)
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Southeastern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic; Indian Ocean doubtful.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
  • Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 247)
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Size

Maximum size: 600 mm TL
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Max. size

60.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5578))
  • Compagno, L.J.V., D.A. Ebert and M.J. Smale 1989 Guide to the sharks and rays of southern Africa. New Holland (Publ.) Ltd., London. 158 p. (Ref. 5578)
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Diagnostic Description

A large, heavy-bodied lanternshark with a big head (Ref. 5578), bladelike unicuspidate teeth in lower jaw and teeth with cusps and cusplets in upper jaw, stocky body, conspicuous lines of denticles on body, conspicuous black markings on underside of body and tail, with tail marking short and not extending far posteriorly (Ref. 247). Dark brown or black in color, possibly darker below (Ref. 26346).
  • Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 247)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Occupies the outermost continental shelf and upper slope at depths of 220 to 637 m. Nothing known of the ecology or biology or the species apart from its size at birth (18 cm TL) and minimum size of male maturity (41 cm TL) (Lamilla 2003). Presumably aplacental viviparous (Compagno et al. 2005).

Systems
  • Marine
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Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 220 - 1620 m (Ref. 44037)
  • Shcherbachev, Y.N. 1987 Preliminary list of thalassobathyal fishes of the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean. J. Ichthyol. 27(2):37-46. (Ref. 44037)
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Depth range based on 222 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 143 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 291 - 1371.6
  Temperature range (°C): 2.024 - 12.576
  Nitrate (umol/L): 10.477 - 34.970
  Salinity (PPS): 34.344 - 35.195
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.882 - 4.943
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.965 - 2.510
  Silicate (umol/l): 8.423 - 68.501

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 291 - 1371.6

Temperature range (°C): 2.024 - 12.576

Nitrate (umol/L): 10.477 - 34.970

Salinity (PPS): 34.344 - 35.195

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.882 - 4.943

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.965 - 2.510

Silicate (umol/l): 8.423 - 68.501
 
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Depth: 220 - 923m.
From 220 to 923 meters.

Habitat: bathydemersal.
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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental slope (Ref. 75154).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous, with 10-13 in a litter (Ref. 6871). Size at birth about 18 cm (Ref. 6871). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
  • Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens 1994 Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Etmopterus granulosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Etmopterus granulosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 40
Specimens with Barcodes: 45
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Etmopterus cf. granulosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Etmopterus cf. granulosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2007

Assessor/s
Kyne, P.M. & Lamilla, J.M.

Reviewer/s
Acuna, E. & Valenti, S.V. (Shark Red list Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This deepwater lanternshark is endemic to South America where it occurs on the outermost shelf and upper slope off southern Argentina, southern Chile (including the Strait of Magellan and the Juan Fernandez Seamounts) and the Falkland Islands. The species is recorded from depths of 220 to 637 m and therefore from a relatively restricted band of available habitat. Like other lanternsharks, this species is poorly-known with little information available on the species' biology or ecology, although it is known to reach 76 cm total length. This species is taken in minor amounts as bycatch in small-scale artisanal deepwater longline fisheries off Valdivia (Chile), in the Chilean deep sea shrimp fishery and in the orange roughy trawl fishery on the Juan Fernandez Seamounts. However, in general, fishing pressure is minimal across the distribution and depth range of the species and it is thus assessed as Least Concern. Any future expansion of deepwater fisheries in the area should be closely-monitored, particularly given the relatively restricted habitat of the species.
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Population

Population
The species is recorded in the Strait of Magellan and thus appears to have a continuous distribution between the Southwest Atlantic and the Southeast Pacific, pointing to the existence of a single population between these regions.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is taken in minor amounts as bycatch in small-scale artisanal deepwater longline fisheries off Valdivia, Chile, which target pink cusk-eel Genypterus blacodes (Lamilla 2003), in the Chilean deep sea shrimp fishery, which operates down to depths of 500 m (Acuña and Villaroel 2002), and in the orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus industrial benthic trawl fishery on the Juan Fernandez Seamounts (33 to 34°S and 77 to 78°W) at depths of 300 to 500 m (Lamilla unpub. data).

Other fisheries in the region generally operate outside the depth range of E. granulosus. The Patagonian red shrimp fishery fishes shallower than the species occurs (30 to 100 m: A. Pettovello pers. comm). Around the Falkland Islands, trawl fishing occurs in waters down to ~350 to 400 m, but generally less than 325 m, while longlining is restricted to depths greater than 600 m, with the majority occurring at depths greater than 800 m (J. Pompert pers. comm). The species has not been recorded as bycatch in observer programs on commercial vessels operating around the Falkland Islands (J. Pompert pers. comm).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
None in place. Any future expansion of deepwater fisheries in the area should be closely-monitored.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
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Wikipedia

Southern lanternshark

The southern lanternshark, Etmopterus granulosus, is a shark of the family Etmopteridae found in the southeast Pacific between latitudes 29°S and 59°S, at depths of between 220 and 1,460 m. Its length is up to 60 cm.

Reproduction is ovoviviparous, with 10 to 13 pups in a litter, length at birth about 18 cm.

References

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