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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

This species is usually solitary. Adults stay in flooded forests during first 5 months of flooding and consume but fruits and grains. Young and juveniles live in black waters of flood plains until their sexual maturity. Feeds on zooplankton, insects, snails and decaying plants (Ref. 32894). Used in aquaculture because it can live in mineral poor waters and is very resistant to diseases. Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Native to the Amazon and Orinoco river basins of South America. Has been collected in Florida but not known to be established there (Robins et al. 1991). Reported from five states--California, Florida, Hawaii (multiple records) , Massachusetts, and Texas (multiple records) (Fuller et al. 1999). All introductions probably represent aquarium releases (Fuller et al. 1999).

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South America: Amazon and Orinoco basins as wild form; pisciculture form largely distributed in South America.
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Amazon and Orinoco basins, introduced elsewhere: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Introduced or raised in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Jamaica and Panama.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 950 mm TL
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Max. size

108 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 40.0 kg (Ref. 72380)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Habitats in North America include rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and canals (Fuller et al. 1999). Taken in a coastal area in water with a salinity of 10 ppt in Texas (see Fuller et al. 1999).

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Environment

benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; pH range: 5.0 - 7.8; dH range: 20; depth range 5 - ? m
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

This species is usually solitary. Adults stay in flooded forests during first 5 months of flooding and consume but fruits and grains. Young and juveniles live in black waters of flood plains until their sexual maturity. Feeds on fruits and nuts of palm and rubber trees. In low water season, feeds on feces, fish, algae, wood, leaves and detritus. Has strong teeth that can chew hard nuts that fall in the water during flowering season. Juveniles are omnivores (Ref. 51869).
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Diseases and Parasites

Rhabdochona Infestation 4. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Cucullanus Infestation 7. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Chabaudinema Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Colossoma macropomum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 18
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
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Wikipedia

Tambaqui

The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is a freshwater species of serrasalmid. It is also known by the names black pacu, black-finned pacu, giant pacu, cachama, gamitana, and sometimes as pacu (a name used for several other related species).

Distribution[edit]

The tambaqui is the largest characin of South America, found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in its wild form. However, its pisciculture form is widely distributed in South America.[1]

Description[edit]

It may reach more than 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in total length and 40 kg (88 lb) in total weight.[1]

It is similar in shape to the piranha and is sometimes confused with the carnivorous fish; the tambaqui is tall and laterally compressed with large eyes and a slightly arched back. Body color is basic black to gray with spots and blemishes in its midbody. All the fins are black and the pectoral fins are small. Around 10% of a tambaqui's weight is fat. The world record recognized by IGFA belongs to the Brazilian Jorge Masullo de Aguiar with 32.4 kg (71 lb).

Ecology[edit]

This species is usually solitary.[1] Adults stay in flooded forests during the first five months of flooding, and consume fruits and grains. Young and juveniles live in black waters of flood plains until sexual maturity. The tambaqui feeds on zooplankton, insects, snails, and decaying plants.[1] The species plays an important role in dispersing seeds from fruits.[2][3][4]

Relationship to humans[edit]

The tambaqui is used in aquaculture because it can live in mineral-poor waters and is very resistant to diseases. This species is marketed fresh and frozen.[1]

In Thailand, this fish, known locally as pla khu dam (ปลาคู้ดำ), was introduced from Hong Kong and Singapore as part of fish-farming projects, but has adapted to local conditions and thrives in the wild in some areas.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2007). "Colossoma macropomum" in FishBase. July 2007 version.
  2. ^ Cressey, Daniel (2011-03-23). "Fruit-feasting fish fertilize faraway forests". Nature News. Nature Publishing Group. doi:10.1038/news.2011.177. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  3. ^ Yong, Ed (2011-03-22). "Vegetarian piranhas are the Amazon’s champion gardeners". Discover Magazine blogs. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  4. ^ Anderson, J. T.; Nuttle, T.; Saldaña Rojas, J. S.; Pendergast, T. H.; Flecker, A. S. (2011-03-23). "Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore". Proc. R. Soc. B (The Royal Society) 278 (1710). doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0155. 
  5. ^ Colossoma macropomum introduced to Thailand
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Also known as "tambaqui" (see Fuller et al. 1999).

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