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BiologyUsually found in flowing stretches of streams and medium-sized rivers with gravel to stone bottom, but also in a variety of other habitats, including sandy canals and lake shores. Larvae are benthic. Larvae and small juveniles prefer sand bottom and slow current, shifting to gravel bottom and fast current when growing. Adults prey on relatively large benthic invertebrates such as gammarids, chironomids, insect larvae. They breed on gravel, sand or among aquatic vegetation. Tolerate moderate organic pollution and stream canalization and very sensitive to pollution by heavy metals (Ref. 59043). Sensitive to pollution and low oxygen levels, therefore, its presence in a river can be taken as an indication of good water quality (Ref. 6111).