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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Benthic species (Ref. 75154) which occurs in inshore coastal waters (Ref. 6205). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: India to the Gulf of Thailand, north to Taiwan, south to northern Australia from Shark Bay around the northern coast to Adolphus Passage, Queensland. Possibly more widely distributed than indicated.
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West Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 17; Vertebrae: 33
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Size

Maximum size: 200 mm SL
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Max. size

20.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 6205))
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Diagnostic Description

Swim bladder with a short median anterior extension and about five small pointed anterolateral projections. No black spot on pectoral fin base; no wide distinct silvery lateral band; peritoneum is black-brown.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; non-migratory; marine; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 6205)
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Depth range based on 58 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 11 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 8.71624 - 74.6
  Temperature range (°C): 24.292 - 26.503
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.149 - 1.347
  Salinity (PPS): 35.100 - 35.411
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.488 - 4.666
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.104 - 0.175
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.873 - 3.468

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 8.71624 - 74.6

Temperature range (°C): 24.292 - 26.503

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.149 - 1.347

Salinity (PPS): 35.100 - 35.411

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.488 - 4.666

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.104 - 0.175

Silicate (umol/l): 0.873 - 3.468
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 20 - 50m.
From 20 to 50 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sillago sp. TG-2010

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sillago sp. TG-2010

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sillago sp. 2

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sillago sp. 1

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sillago sp.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Sillago ingenuua

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNGAGCCTGAGCAGGAATAGTAGGCACAGCCCTAAGCCTGCTTATCCGGGCAGAACTCAGCCAACCTGGCGCTTTGCTCGGAGACGATCAAATCTACAATGTAATTGTTACGGCACATGCCTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTCTAATTGGAGGCTTCGGAAACTGGCTAATCCCCCTAATGATTGGAGCCCCCGATATGGCATTCCCTCGGATGAATAACATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCACCCTCCTTTTTACTCCTTCTTGCATCATCCGGAGTTGAAGCCGGGGCCGGAACTGGTTGAACAGTTTACCCCCCACTGGCTGGAAACTTGGCCCATGCGGGAGCTTCTGTTGACCTAACTATTTTTTCTCTACATTTAGCAGGGATTTCTTCAATTCTAGGGGCAATCAACTTTATTACAACAATTATTAATATGAAGCCCCCAGCAATCTCACAATACCAAACCCCTCTCTTTGTATGATCTGTTCTAATTACAGCAGTTCTGCTACTATTATCTCTGCCAGTTCTTGCAGCAGGCATTACAATACTTCTCACTGACCGAAATCTCAATACCACTTTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGTGGTGACCCTATCCTCTACCAACATCTATTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sillago ingenuua

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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Wikipedia

Bay whiting

The bay whiting, Sillago ingenuua, is a species of coastal marine fish of the smelt-whiting family Sillaginidae. The bay whiting's range extends throughout the west Indian Ocean, including northern Australia, Thailand, India and Taiwan, where it inhabits protected waters. It is benthic in nature, preying on shrimps, polychaetes and molluscs, however little else is known of its biology. Bay whiting are an important part of some inshore fisheries around Australia and Asia, where subsistence and commercial fishermen regularly take the species.

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

The bay whiting is one of 29 species in the genus Sillago, which is one of three divisions of the smelt whiting family Sillaginidae. The smelt-whitings are Perciformes in the suborder Percoidei.[1]

The species was first identified and named Sillago ingenuua by Roland McKay in his comprehensive 1985 review of the Sillaginidae family, with the holotype collected near Chantaburi, in the Gulf of Thailand in 1975. Prior to this official naming, the species had been misidentified as Sillago argentifasciata by Shao and Chang in 1978 and again in 1980 by Dutt and Sujatha. The binomial name is derived from the Latin ingenuus, meaning "freeborn", in reference to Thailand where the holotype was collected. The only common name, bay whiting is in reference to the species usual habitat.[2]

Description[edit]

As with most of the genus Sillago, the bay whiting has a slightly compressed, elongate body tapering toward the terminal mouth.[1] The body is covered in small ctenoid scales extending to the two rows of cheek scales and head. The first dorsal fin has 11 spines and the second dorsal fin has 1 leading spine with 17 soft rays posterior. The anal fin is similar to the second dorsal fin, but has 2 spines with 17 soft rays posterior to the spines. Other distinguishing features include 66 to 70 lateral line scales and a total of 33 vertebrae. The species has a known maximum length of 20 cm.[3]

The swim bladder has a short anterior extension, which is significantly longer in older individuals, while there are also 5 short, pointed anterolateral projections. There is a single, poorly developed posterior projection and a poorly developed duct like process on the ventral surface.[2]

The bay whiting has a pale sandy brown head and body, ranging to a light fawn with no obvious mid-lateral silvery band as in S. argentifasciata. All fins are hyaline in appearance, and the pectoral fin has no dark spot at the base. Th operculum is almost clear, with the inner dark brown surface showing through. The tip of the nose is occasionally dark.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The bay whiting is known from a fairly patchy distribution, inhabiting the Gulf of Thailand, India, Taiwan and northern Australia from Shark Bay around the northern coast to Adolphus Passage, north-eastern Queensland.[4] McKay suggests that it may be far more widespread, but commonly misidentified as S. argentifasciata, or in the case of small subsistence fisheries, has not been reported at all.

The species inhabits inshore coastal waters, and is known from depths between 20 and 50 m.[3] Bay whiting, like many other sillaginids are known to inhabit estuaries, but little research has been done on their habitat preference.[5]

Diet[edit]

The diet of bay whiting has been the focus of a study investigating trophic relations between this species, Sillago sihama, and other similarly distributed fish of the South China Sea. In this location, it was found bay whiting predominantly prey on a variety of shrimp species, polychaete worms and Mantis shrimp, with minor amounts of crabs, sea urchins, bivalves and copepods.[6] Unlike other species of sillaginid,[7] the bay whiting doesn't have a large dietary shift as it moves to adulthood, causing parents to compete with offspring to an extent. The diet is, however, offset from the co-occurring S. sihama, preventing significant competition from this species.[6]

Relationship to humans[edit]

The bay whiting is often taken by trawlers operating on the northwest shelf of Western Australia and southward to Shark Bay. This species is very commonly trawled near Torres Straits to the north of Queensland.[3] It is also one of the most important species to traditional and minor commercial fisheries along the Asian coast.[6] It is marketed fresh throughout its range. Bay whiting are occasionally caught by recreational fishermen, with the largest recorded fish caught by an angler weighing only 0.047 kg.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2007). "Sillago ingenuua" in FishBase. Aug 2007 version.
  2. ^ a b c McKay, R.J. (1985). "A Revision of the Fishes of the Family Silaginidae". Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 22 (1): 1–73. 
  3. ^ a b c McKay, R.J. (1992). FAO Species Catalogue: Vol. 14. Sillaginid Fishes Of The World. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organisation. pp. 19–20. ISBN 92-5-103123-1. 
  4. ^ Hosese, D.F.; Bray, D.J., Paxton, J.R. and Alen, G.R. (2007). Zoological Catalogue of Australia Vol. 35 (2) Fishes. Sydney: CSIRO. p. 1126. ISBN 978-0-643-09334-8. 
  5. ^ Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Shing Yip Lee, Norman C. Duke & Jan Warnken (September 2006). "Effect of rainfall as a component of climate change on estuarine fish production in Queensland, Australia". Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 69 (3–4): 491–504. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2006.05.011. 
  6. ^ a b c Hajisamae, Sukree; Pun Yeesin & Sakri Ibrahim (August 2006). "Feeding ecology of two sillaginid fishes and trophic interrelations with other co-existing species in the southern part of South China Sea". Environmental Biology of Fishes 76 (2–4): 167–176. doi:10.1007/s10641-006-9018-3. 
  7. ^ Hyndes, G.A.; M. E. Platell; I. C. Potter (June 1997). "Relationships between diet and body size, mouth morphology, habitat and movements of six Sillaginid species in coastal waters: implications for resource partitioning". Marine Biology 128 (1): 585–598. doi:10.1007/s002270050125. 
  8. ^ Australian Anglers Association, (WA Division) Inc. "Western Australian State Fishing Records". Archived from the original on 31 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-29. 
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