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Overview

Brief Summary

The Moonfish (Mene maculata) is the only extant member of the genus Mene and of the family Menidae. The body is highly compressed laterally and very deep vertically. The ventral profle is steep, with a sharp ventral edge. The caudal (tail) fin is deeply forked. The mouth is small and protrusible. The body is silvery below and blue-green on the back, with three to four rows of dark gray spots on the upper side. The first two rays of the pelvic fin are greatly elongated, forming a prominent backward-pointing process on the underside of the fish. Moonfish may approach 30 cm in length. They are not common, but are wide-ranging in the Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, and in the western Pacific occur from Queensland (Australia) to Japan. (Randall 1995)

  • Randall, J.E. 1995. Coastal Fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.
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Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits deeper coastal waters near the bottom on both the continental shelves and around major island groups; sometimes in river estuaries (Ref. 47690, 48635). Found in schools (Ref. 47690, 48635). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5213). Readily dries in air without salting (Ref. 4375, 48635). Marketed fresh and dried (Ref. 47690). Minimum depth from Ref. 30573.
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1984 Menidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3465)
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: East Africa to southern Japan and northeastern Australia. Recorded from the South China Sea (Ref. 4883) and the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819).
  • Woodland, D.J. 2001 Menidae. Moonfish. p. 2791. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 47690)
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Indo-West Pacific: Durban (South Africa) and East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to New Guinea, south to Western Australia and New South Wales (Australia).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 40 - 45; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 30 - 33
  • Smith, M.M. 1986 Menidae. p. 619-620. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4375)
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 47690))
  • Woodland, D.J. 2001 Menidae. Moonfish. p. 2791. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 47690)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Solitary species which inhabits coastal waters including estuaries. Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5213).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Dorsal spines disappear with age; dark blue above, silvery white below; 2-3 rows of dark spots above and below lateral line (Ref. 4375).
  • Smith, M.M. 1986 Menidae. p. 619-620. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4375)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 50 - 200 m (Ref. 47690)
  • Woodland, D.J. 2001 Menidae. Moonfish. p. 2791. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 47690)
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Depth range based on 38 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 21 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 14 - 478
  Temperature range (°C): 10.257 - 27.672
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.136 - 15.278
  Salinity (PPS): 34.233 - 35.468
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.494 - 4.757
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 1.236
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.110 - 14.521

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 14 - 478

Temperature range (°C): 10.257 - 27.672

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.136 - 15.278

Salinity (PPS): 34.233 - 35.468

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.494 - 4.757

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 1.236

Silicate (umol/l): 1.110 - 14.521
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in coastal waters, but may enter estuaries (Ref. 75154).
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Diseases and Parasites

Anisakis Disease (juvenile). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and S. Lumanlan-Mayo 1997 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 369, 102 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 26129)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Mene maculata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 12 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTACCTTCTGTTTGGTGCCTGGGCCGGAATGGTGGGCACTGCCCTA---AGTCTACTCATCCGAGCAGAACTTAACCAACCTGGCACTCTCCTGGGAGAC---GACCAAATCTATAATGTAATTGTTACGGCACACGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGAGGCTTCGGAAACTGACTGATCCCCCTAATA---GTTGGAGCCCCCGACATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCTCCCTCGTTCCTTCTCCTACTGGCCTCCTCAGGAGTAGAAGCCGGTGCCGGAACGGGATGAACCGTATACCCGCCTCTTGCCGGGAATTTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCATCTGTTGACCTC---ACAATTTTCTCACTTCACTTGGCCGGGGTCTCTTCAATTCTTGGGGCAATTAATTTTATTACTACGATTATCAACATGAAACCACCTACTGTCTCAATGTACCAAATTCCTTTATTTGTTTGAGCAGTCCTAATTACAGCCGTCCTTCTCCTCCTTTCCCTCCCGGTCCTAGCTGCC---GGAATTACAATGCTGTTAACAGACCGAAACCTGAACACCGCTTTCTTTGACCCTACTGGAGGAGGCGACCCTATTCTCTACCAACACCTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mene maculata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 29
Specimens with Barcodes: 47
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
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Wikipedia

Mene maculata

Mene maculata, the Moonfish, is the only extant member of the genus Mene and of the family Menidae. The body is highly compressed laterally and very deep vertically. The ventral profile is steep, with a sharp ventral edge. The caudal (tail) fin is deeply forked. The mouth is small and protrusible. The body is silvery below and blue-green on the back, with three to four rows of dark gray spots on the upper side. The first two rays of the pelvic fin are greatly elongated, forming a prominent backward-pointing process on the underside of the fish.

The Moonfish is native to the Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, and in the western Pacific where they can be found near the bottom in brackish and marine waters in the vicinity of reefs. They occur at depths of from 50 to 200 metres (160 to 660 ft). This species can reach a length of 30 centimetres (12 in) TL. It is a commercially important species, being easy to dry without having to be salted.[1]

See also[edit]

Living fossil

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Mene maculata" in FishBase. December 2013 version.

Links[edit]

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