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BiologyAdults are generally found at sea, but young inhabit river mouths, inner bays, and mangrove forests. In freshwater, they occur in rivers, lagoons, lakes, and swampy backwaters (Ref. 2847, 44894). Tolerate a wide pH range (5.2-9.1) (Ref. 44894) and salinities from 0 to 100. Mainly diurnal (Ref. 7017). Predaceous, feeding mainly on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 5213). Breed offshore, possibly throughout the year. Larvae are transparent and resemble larval eels (Ref. 13337), but with a forked tail (Ref. 167). Juveniles commonly enter freshwater (Ref. 44894, 48635) in clear or turbid water (Ref. 44894). Known to breath air, rising regularly to the surface to do so. Cultured in ponds, the fry being sourced from the coasts (Ref. 7050). Popular angling fish (Ref. 3969). Edible but not esteemed (Ref. 3969).