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BiologyOccur on soft bottoms of the continental shelf (Ref. 7300, 75154). Feed on benthic fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 6871). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.4-6.3 cm long and 3.2-3.8 wide (Ref. 41308).