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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

An active swimmer usually found on outer reef slopes and channels adjacent to deep water. Hovers above the bottom and probably feeds primarily on fishes (Ref. 9710). It is uncommon and usually solitary, however Myers (1989, Ref. 4538) reported of occasional sightings of groups of 3 or 4 fish. Solitary, hovering in midwater (Ref 90102).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Distribution

Range Description

Gracila albomarginata is an Indo-Pacific species ranging from northern Mozambique to French Polynesia, north to Okinawa (Japan), and south to the northern Great Barrier Reef (Australia). It is unknown from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, but has been recorded from Europa Island (in the Mozambique Channel), Réunion, Mauritius, Indonesia, Scott Reef and Rowley Shoals (Australia).
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Indo-Pacific: northern Mozambique to French Polynesia, north to Okinawa, south to the northern Great Barrier Reef. Unknown from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Recorded from Europa Island (MNHN 1992-0983, Ref. 33390).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Aldabra and western Mascarenes east to northern Line and Tuamotu islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia and Tonga.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9 - 10
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Size

Maximum size: 400 mm NG
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Max. size

40.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Diagnostic Description

Readily identified by the white square on their sides, blue in natural light (Ref. 48635). Differs from all shallow water Micronesian Cephalopholis except C. polleni by having truncate tail (Ref. 37816). Characterized further by: greenish or reddish brown to brownish grey body color , with several narrow curved dark bars on the midlateral part of the body; dark brown spot midlaterally on the caudal peduncle; 3-5 blue lines across head; oblong body, slightly compressed, depth contained 2.6-3.3 times in SL; width of body 1.8-2.3 times in depth; head smaller compared to other groupers, head length 2.9-3.2 times in SL; evenly convex dorsal head profile; slightly convex interorbital area, width greater than eye diameter; narrow preorbital, depth distinctly less than eye diameter, preorbital depth 10-15 times in HL; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, smooth and fleshy lower edge; ventral edge of subopercle and interopercle smooth; posterior and anterior nostril subequal in size; posterior part of maxilla with hook-shaped or step-like expansion on ventral edge in adults; well developed supramaxilla; pair of small canines at front of jaws; presence of palatine teeth; 2 rows of teeth on midside of lower jaw, inner teeth depressible and twice as long as outer teeth (Ref. 89707).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Description

An active swimmer usually found on outer reef slopes and channels adjacent to deep waters. It is uncommon and usually solitary, however Myers (1989, Ref. 4538) reported of occasional sightings of groups of 3 or 4 fish.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Type Information

Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 183857
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Una Una Road, Binang Unang Island East, Gulf of Tomini, Celebes (East Indies), Sulawesi, Indonesia, Gulf of Tomini, Pacific
Depth (m): 3 to 4
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 183858
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Buka Buka Island, North; Gulf of Tomini, Celebes, Buka Buka Island, Indonesia, Suluwesi Islands, Gulf of Tomini, Pacific
Depth (m): 2 to 5
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 183852
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1908
Locality: Port Maricaban (Reef); China Sea, vicinity Southern Luzon, Maricaban Island, Batangas, Philippines, Philippine Archipelago, China Sea, Pacific
Depth (m): 4 to 6
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 183851
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1908
Locality: Sablayan Bay, Near Sablayan, Mindoro; Mindoro Strait, Mindoro, Mindoro Occidental, Philippines, Philippine Archipelago, Sablayan Bay, South China Sea, Pacific
Depth (m): 2 to 4
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Type for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 89985
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: (East Indies) Danawan Island, Vicinity of Darvel Bay, Borneo, Borneo, Sabah, Malaysia, Pacific
Depth (m): 2 to 6
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 183856
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Dutch East Indies: Sidapan Id. (N.), Sibuko Bay, Borneo, and Vicinity, Borneo, Sabah, Malaysia, Pacific
Depth (m): 2 to 6
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 149319
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Year Collected: 1908
Locality: Between Burias and Luzon; Anima Sola Id., N. 44 Degrees W., 29.50 Miles., Anima Sola, Camarines Sur, Philippines, Pacific
Depth (m): 393 to 393
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 183860
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: W. of Malibogu Pt. (Celebes), Gulf of Tomini., Sulawesi, Indonesia, Pacific
Depth (m): 3 to 6
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 183855
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Powatic Harbor, Makyan Island (Southeast); Between Gillolo and Makyan Islands, Makian Island, Halmahera Islands, Moluku, Indonesia, Moluccas, Powatic Harbor, Molucca Sea, Pacific
Depth (m): 2 to 5
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 183854
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Birabirahan Island (west), Off Borneo; Macassar Strait, Birabirahan Island, Borneo, Malaysia, Macassar Strait, Pacific
Depth (m): 3 to 6
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 99780
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Gane (Gillolo Island), Patiente Strait and southward, Gillolo Island, Indonesia, Moluccas, Patiente Strait, Pacific
Depth (m): 3 to 8
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Paratype for Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 183853
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Gane (Gillolo Island), Patiente Strait and southward, Gillolo Island, Indonesia, Moluccas, Patiente Strait, Pacific
Depth (m): 3 to 8
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Fowler, H. W. & Bean, B. A. 1930. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 100: 235.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Gracila albomarginata is a reef-associated species and an active swimmer usually found on outer reef slopes and channels adjacent to deep water. It hovers above the bottom and probably feeds primarily on fishes. It is uncommon and usually solitary, however Myers (1989) reported of occasional sightings of groups of three or four fish.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 6 - 120 m (Ref. 9710), usually 15 - 120 m (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 10 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.915 - 393
  Temperature range (°C): 27.072 - 29.199
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 1.251
  Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 34.546
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.438 - 4.525
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.214
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.322 - 4.407

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.915 - 393

Temperature range (°C): 27.072 - 29.199

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 1.251

Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 34.546

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.438 - 4.525

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.214

Silicate (umol/l): 1.322 - 4.407
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 6 - 120m.
From 6 to 120 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

An active swimmer usually found on outer reef slopes and channels adjacent to deep water. Hovers above the bottom and probably feeds primarily on fishes.
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gracila albomarginata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Rhodes, K.L., Myers, R. & Yeeting, B.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Gracila albomarginata is listed as Data Deficient. It does not form a major part of any known coral reef fishery and, very little is known of its biology or exploitation.
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Population

Population
General
Gracila albomarginata is widely distributed and rare in most localities within its range, preferring deeper water habitat.

Fisheries-dependent and independent
Out of 17,000 serranids, only five individuals were observed in the South Pacific (IRD database). Only one specimen seen in Guam in 15 years of monitoring (creel census data) (Myers pers. comm.). A survey of 1,848 serranids over a seven month period in Pohnpei in 2006 did not find any of this species in catch in the reef fish fishery (Rhodes and Tupper 2007). The species is relatively rare on reefs in Pohnpei.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Gracila albomarginata may be threatened by small-scale commercial and artisinal fisheries in some areas as it is a rare species, in general. It may also be sensitive to habitat loss through coral destruction and climate change.
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Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Gracila albomarginata occurs within marine protected areas within its range, but there are no specific conservation actions for this fish.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Allen, G.R. and R.C. Steene 1988 Fishes of Christmas Island Indian Ocean. Christmas Island Natural History Association, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, 6798, Australia. 197 p. (Ref. 30874)
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
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