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BiologySublittoral on sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 11230). Depth range given by H. Ishihara (pers.comm. 07/07). Feed on invertebrates and bony fishes (Ref. 9908). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.9-5.4 cm long and 2.5-2.9 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41253).