Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Sublittoral on sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 11230). Depth range given by H. Ishihara (pers.comm. 07/07). Feed on invertebrates and bony fishes (Ref. 9908). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.9-5.4 cm long and 2.5-2.9 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41253).
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Distribution

Range Description

Northwest and western central Pacific: South China Sea from, Sarawak, Borneo, north to Taiwan, Province of China, and East China Sea, and Sea of Japan to north of the Noto peninsula (Masuda et al.1984, Yamada et al. 1995).
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Western Pacific.
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Western Pacific: Japan to the East China Sea (Ref. 559) and the Western Central Pacific (Ref. 9908).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This skate is found on sandy muddy substrates at depths of 75?150 m (Yamada et al. 1995). Like other skates, it is oviparous. Reproduction takes place in June and July and egg cases are laid in February to June. Egg cases measure 90 x 25 mm. Very little is known of the biology of this species.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 30 - 118 m
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 108 - 108
  Temperature range (°C): 15.696 - 15.696
  Nitrate (umol/L): 6.567 - 6.567
  Salinity (PPS): 34.477 - 34.477
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.999 - 4.999
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.412 - 0.412
  Silicate (umol/l): 18.589 - 18.589
 
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on invertebrates and bony fishes.
  • Last, P.R. and L.J.V. Compagno 1999 Rajidae. Hardnose skates. p. 1452-1456. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9908)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9908&speccode=12580 External link.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous (Ref. 9908). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Okamejei acutispina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACTTTATTTAATTTTTGGTGCCTGAGCAGGTATGGTAGGAACTGGCCTA---AGCCTCTTAATCCGGGCAGAGCTAAGTCAACCTGGAACCCTCCTAGGTGAC---GATCAGATTTATAATGTCATTGTTACAGCCCACGCCTTCGTAATAATCTTTTTTATGGTCATACCAATTATGATCGGTGGATTTGGTAATTGGCTCGTCCCCTTAATG---ATTGGCTCACCAGACATAGCCTTTCCACGCATAAACAACATAAGTTTCTGACTTCTGCCTCCATCTTTTCTTCTCCTCCTGGCCTCGGCCGGGGTAGAAGCAGGGGCCGGAACAGGTTGAACTGTTTACCCCCCACTAGCAGGAAATCTGGCCCACGCCGGGGCCTCCGTAGACTTA---ACAATTTTCTCCCTTCACTTGGCAGGCATCTCATCTATCCTCGCCTCCATTAACTTCATCACCACAATTATTAATATAAAACCACCAGCAATCTCTCAGTACCAAACACCATTATTCGTATGATCAATTCTTGTTACAACTGTCTTACTTCTTATAGCCCTGCCAGTACTAGCAGCT---GGCATCACCATACTTCTTACGGATCGTAATCTCAATACAACTTTCTTTGACCCAGCGGGAGGGGGCGACCCAATTCTATATCAACACTTA
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Okamejei acutispina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Ishihara, H., Iglésias, S., Wang, Y., Tanaka, S. & Nakaya, K.

Reviewer/s
Valenti, S.V. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
The Sharpspine Skate (Okamejei acutispina) is a poorly known, but common skate found from 75?150 m on sandy on muddy bottoms. Occurs in the northwest and western central Pacific, from Japan to the South China Sea. It is captured in gillnets, bottom longline and trawl fisheries within its range, and although it is not a target species, it is retained and utilised. No species specific information is currently available on catches or temporal trends, although total landings of skates and rays have declined since 1947, mainly due to a decrease in catch in the East China Sea. Although this species may have relatively productive life-history characteristics compared to other elasmobranchs, parts of its range have been intensively fished and further study is required to determine population trends. As such it cannot be assessed beyond Data Deficient at present.
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Population

Population
Apparently common within its range.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is captured as bycatch in gillnet fisheries, bottom trawl and coastal setnets off Japan, and in bottom trawls off Taiwan Island. Although it is not targeted, it is retained and utilised for human consumption and fishmeal. Areas of this species? range have been subject to intensive fishing pressure (NOAA 2004ab). No species specific information is currently available on catches or temporal trends. Total Japanese landings of skates and rays declined during 1947?1995 (from 18,000 t per year to ~4,000 t per year), mainly due to a decrease in catch in the East China Sea. This catch corresponds to small size Okamejei species and may be due to overfishing of these skates in the East China Sea (Ishihara et al. 2002).
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Data deficient (DD)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no specific conservation measures in place at this time. Species-specific monitoring is required to determine and monitor population trends.
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