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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabit clear waters of coral reefs; more often found in exposed rather than protected reef areas (Ref. 5213). Feed on fishes (80%, mainly Pseudanthias squamipinnis) and crustaceans. Form haremic groups comprising of a dominant male and 2 to 12 females. These groups occupy territories of up to 475 sq m subdivided into secondary territories and defended by a single female (Ref. 6480). Generally common (Ref. 9710).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Distribution

Range Description

Cephalopholis miniata is an Indo-Pacific species recorded from the Red Sea to Durban (South Africa) and eastward to the Line Islands. Its range includes most islands in the Indian and west-central Pacific oceans. The species is absent from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. It also is recorded from the East Andaman Sea, Thailand (Allen and Stone 2005), and India (southwest tip) (Myers distributional database 2006). Misidentified as Cephalopholis cyanostigma from Reuníon (Postel et al. 1963).
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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to Durban, South Africa and eastward to the Line Islands; including most islands in the Indian and west-central Pacific oceans. Absent from Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Misidentified as Cephalopholis cyanostigma from Reunion (Ref. 6453).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Fiji and Tonga, north to Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 15; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8 - 9
  • Randall, J.E. and P.C. Heemstra 1991 Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae), with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (20):332 p. (Ref. 4787)
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Size

Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102))
  • Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
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Maximum size: 450 mm TL
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits clear waters of coral reefs; more often found in exposed rather than protected reef areas (Ref. 5213). Feeds on fish (80%, mainly @Pseudanthias squamipinnis@) and crustaceans. It forms haremic groups comprising of a dominant male and 2 to 12 females. These groups occupy territories of up to 475 sq. m subdivided into secondary territories and defended by a single female (Ref. 6480).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Color orange-red to reddish brown, usually dark posteriorly with numerous bright blue spots which are smaller than the pupil and often faintly dark-edged on head, body and median fins; distal margin of caudal fin and soft portions of dorsal and anal fins usually with a narrow blue margin and blackish submarginal line; orange-yellow pectoral fins, on some only distally; orange-red pelvic fins; it is capable of a disruptive color pattern of irregular oblique olivaceous bars; juveniles may be yellow with scattered faint blue spots. D IX, 14-16; A III, 8-9 (rarely 8); pectoral 17-18 (often 18); scales on lateral line 47-55; scales on longitudinal series 94-114; snout anterior to nostrils no scales; partially scaled maxilla; abdomen with cycloid scales; gill rakers 7-9 + 13-15; depth of body 2.65-3.05 in SL; length of head 2.4-2.65 in SL; the maxilla extends to or posterior to rear of the orbit; smooth ventral margin of preopercle; 5th - 8th dorsal spines longest , 3.0-3.6 in head; pectoral fins 1.45-1.75 in head; pelvic fins do not reach the anus, 1.9-2.3 in head (Ref. 4787).
  • Randall, J.E. and P.C. Heemstra 1991 Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae), with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (20):332 p. (Ref. 4787)
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Type Information

Cotype for Cephalopholis maculatus
Catalog Number: USNM 61153
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): E. Mearns
Locality: Zamboanga, Philippines, Philippines, Pacific
  • Cotype:
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Type for Cephalopholis maculatus
Catalog Number: USNM 57843
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): E. Mearns
Locality: Zamboanga, Philippines, Philippines, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
General
Cephalopholis miniata inhabits clear waters of coral reefs and is more often found in exposed rather than protected reef areas (Fischer et al. 1990). On the Barrier Reef, only found in outer shelf back-reef areas (Newman et al. 1997).

Feeding
Cephalopholis miniata feeds on fishes (80%, mainly Pseudanthias squamipinnis) and crustaceans.

Reproduction
The species forms haremic groups comprising of a dominant male and two to 12 females; haremic groups occupy territories of up to 475 sq m subdivided into secondary territories and defended by a single female (Shpigel and Fishelson 1991). The species is listed as a protogynous hermaphrodite, but has not been confirmed through histological analysis (Heemstra and Randall, 1993). Sex ratio in New Caledonia 84 females to four males. Males were larger, but immature; females were found mature at 23 cm TL (IRD database).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 2 - 150 m (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 34 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 18 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 91.44
  Temperature range (°C): 25.778 - 29.199
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.048 - 0.655
  Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.264
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.387 - 4.802
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.327
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 4.452

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 91.44

Temperature range (°C): 25.778 - 29.199

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.048 - 0.655

Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.264

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.387 - 4.802

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.327

Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 4.452
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 2 - 150m.
From 2 to 150 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabit coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific Region (Ref. 9137, 58534). Most often encountered in clear water of outer reefs to depths of at least 150 m. Often found in exposed rather than protected reef areas (Ref. 5213). Form haremic groups comprising of a dominant male and 2 to 12 females. These groups occupy territories of up to 475 sq m subdivided into secondary territories and defended by a single female (Ref. 6480). Generally common (Ref. 9710). Feed on fishes (80%, mainly Pseudanthias squamipinnis) and crustaceans. Feeding occur mainly during the early morning and midafternoon (Ref. 54301).
  • Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley 1989 Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cephalopholis miniata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTATCTGGTATTTGGTGCCTGGGCCGGTATAGTAGGAACAGCTCTC---AGCCTATTAATCCGGGCTGAGCTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCTTTACTCGGCGAT---GATCAAATCTACAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATCATGATTGGTGGGTTCGGAAATTGGCTCATTCCATTAATA---ATCGGAGCCCCCGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATGAATAATATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCTCCATCCTTCTTACTTCTGCTAGCTTCCTCTGGAGTAGAAGCCGGTGCTGGTACTGGTTGAACAGTGTATCCGCCTTTAGCCGGTAACCTAGCCCACGCAGGTGCTTCTGTTGACCTT---ACTATCTTCTCCCTGCATTTAGCAGGAATCTCGTCAATTTTAGGGGCGATTAACTTCATTACTACTATTATTAATATAAAACCCCCTGCCATCTCCCAATATCAAACACCCTTATTTGTTTGAGCTGTGCTCATCACAGCCGTCCTTCTTCTCCTCTCCCTCCCTGTTCTTGCCGCC---GGTATTACAATACTTCTAACAGACCGAAATCTCAACACCACTTTCTTCGATCCTGCTGGCGGGGGAGATCCGATCCTTTACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cephalopholis miniata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 15
Specimens with Barcodes: 29
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Florida Museum of Natural History
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Cabanban, A.S., Kulbicki, M., Fennessy, S., Heemstra, P.C. & Yeeting, B.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Cephalopholis miniata is listed as Least Concern because it is widespread, moderately common in many areas and occurs in a number of marine protected areas, some well-managed. However, degradation of habitat and possible widespread overfishing within its range is cause for concern and additional monitoring.
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Population

Population
General
Cephalopholis miniata is common in most coral-rich areas within its range (Myers pers. comm.) and is generally common in the Red Sea (Lieske and Myers 1994) but low in numbers (Fry et al. 2006).

Fisheries-independent data
Relative abundance (RA = 0.05) = pooled number of species in all censuses/total number of individuals in all censuses x 100 (Rilov and Benayahu 1998).

Frequency of appearance (Red Sea) (FA=no. of censuses in which the species was found/total number of censuses x 100) = 21.2 (Rilov and Benayahu 1998).

Densities 0.03 indiv/1,000 m² in shallow reef in New Caledonia, but higher abundance 0.8/1,000 m² on bommies (IRD database).

It shows stable abundances in New Caledonia over a ten-year survey period (IRD database). It is common in coral reef marine reserve in South Africa (Chater et al. 1993). The species are not abundant in shallow waters in areas surveyed along the Great Barrier Reef (Pears 2005).

Fisheries-dependent data
Constitutes 3% of serranid catch in New Caledonia (IRD database) and less than 1% of catch in Pohnpei (Rhodes and Tupper 2007).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Cephalopholis miniata is threatened by both overfishing and habitat degradation (fish-bombing, sedimentation). It is a common species of economic importance to local fisheries and is captured by hook and line, spear and traps. It is a component of the live reef fish trade, but occurs in unknown quantities. No population trend data is available (citation from Annadel-Busing). The species constitutes less than 1% of catch in Pohnpei (Rhodes and Tupper 2007). Declines in catch of serranids from Sabah includes an unknown sub-component of C. miniata (Cabanban and Biusing, submitted to NAGA).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Cephalopholis miniata is found in marine protected areas within its range, including the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. No other measures specific to the species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
  • Allen, G.R. and R.C. Steene 1988 Fishes of Christmas Island Indian Ocean. Christmas Island Natural History Association, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, 6798, Australia. 197 p. (Ref. 30874)
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
  • Edwards, A.J. and A.D. Shepherd 1992 Environmental implications of aquarium-fish collection in the Maldives, with proposals for regulation. Environ. Conserv. 19:61-72. (Ref. 4907)
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Wikipedia

Coral hind

Cephalopholis miniata, known commonly as the Coral hind, is a species of marine fish in the family Serranidae. Other names include Miniatus Grouper, Miniata Grouper, Coral or Blue-Spot Rockcod, Vermillion seabass, and Coral Grouper.

The Coral hind is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the Indo-West Pacific area, Red Sea included.[2]

The Coral hind is a medium size fish and can reach a maximum size of 50 cm length .[3]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cabanban, A.S., Kulbicki, M., Fennessy, S., Heemstra, P.C. & Yeeting, B. (2008). "Cephalopholis miniata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved May 2013.  Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  2. ^ http://eol.org/pages/214672/details#distribution
  3. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/6450

Further reading[edit]


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