Overview

Comprehensive Description

Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814

Black Sea : 4800-78 (1 spc.), North-east Black Sea ; 4800-80 (4 spc.), North-east Black Sea . Inland water: 4800-840 (3 spc.), 20.08.1996 , Barhal Stream, Altiparmak Village, Yusufeli , Artvin , M. Ôzulug ; 4800- 839 (4 spc.), 09.04.1996 , Akkaya Stream , Bolu , cast net ; 4800-841 (3 spc.), 25.08.1990 , Barhal Stream, Altiparmak Village, Yusufeli , Artvin .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 37-37, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

There are anadromous, lacustrine and resident forms. At the sea, it occurs along coasts at depths of up to 50 m. Undertakes migration to hill streams. Resident part of populations live in streams and uppermost reaches with fast current, cold clear water and stone or gravel bottom. Spawns in upper reaches with fast current. Spawns in October-January. Parrs live in rivers and streams for 2-4 years, then smoltify and migrate to sea or mature in freshwater. Spends 2-4 years in the sea. Parrs and resident adults feed on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Anadromous and large lacustrine individuals prey mostly on fish and large crustaceans. Anadromous individuals feed while in rivers. Damming hinders most returning adults to reach spawning sites (Ref. 59043).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Distribution

Range Description

Rivers draining to northern Black Sea. Lipkovska stream in upper Vardar drainage (Macedonia). Anatolian populations have recently been show to be two distinct species, Salmo coruhensis and S. rizeensis, reducing the distribution area of the species.

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Eurasia: rivers draining to Black Sea; Lipkovska stream in upper Vardar drainage (Macedonia).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Black Sea and adjacent watersheds; introduced in Tigris-Euphrates watersheds.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 1100 mm TL
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Max. size

80.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043))
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished from congeners in Black Sea basin by its unique caudal fin only slightly emarginate and yellow or orange eggs, about 5 mm in diameter. Can be further separated from other species of the genus by having 16-18 gill rakers, usually 18 ( vs. 13-18, usually 16, in Salmo trutta) (Ref. 59043).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat:
At sea, along coasts at depths of up to 50 m. Migrates to hill streams. Resident part of populations in streams and uppermost reaches with fast current, cold clear water and stone or gravel bottom. Spawns in upper reaches with fast current.

Biology:
Anadromous, lacustrine and resident ecotypes. Spawns in October-January. Parrs spend 2-4 years in rivers and streams, then smoltify and migrate to sea or mature in freshwater. Spends 2-4 years at sea. Anadromous individuals return to rivers in April-May and again in October-November. Eggs hatch in 6-8 weeks. Parrs and resident adults feed on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Anadromous and large lacustrine individuals feed mainly on fish and large crustaceans. Anadromous individuals feed while in rivers.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Migration

Anadromous. Fish that ascend rivers to spawn, as salmon and hilsa do. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Freyhof, J.

Reviewer/s
Kottelat, M. & Smith, K.

Contributor/s
Kottelat, M.

Justification

Because the species has been impacted by the construction of dams (mostly more than three generations ago), it has now stabilised at a lower level and, therefore, does not qualify for the threatened or Near Threatened category. The anadromous ecotype is very rare in Europe now. Because of dams, most returning adults are unable to reach spawning sites. The resident populations are less impacted by the dams.


European Union 27 = LC. Same rationale as above.

History
  • 2008
    Least Concern
    (IUCN 2008)
  • 2008
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
Abundant.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The anadromous ecotype is very rare in Europe. Because of damming, most returning adults are unable to reach spawning sites. The resident populations are less impacted by the dams.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No information available.
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Wikipedia

Black Sea salmon

The Black Sea salmon (Salmo labrax) is a fairly small species of salmon, at about 20 inches (510 mm) long on average and rarely reaching over 30 in (760 mm). As its name suggests it inhabits the Black Sea. It is an anadromous relative of the brown trout.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). Black Sea salmon in FishBase. April 2006 version.


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