Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in lakes, from surface to about 20 m depth in summer and near shores in winter. Forms schools (Ref. 59043). Feeds on benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and fish larvae. Spawns in December-February. After spawning, it leaves the coastal areas and stays in deep water. Caught mainly in winter at depths of 25-50 m. Highly valued and usually consumed fresh (Ref. 12290). Threatened due to overfishing and the introduction of other species (Ref. 26100) and intentional hybridization that has been going for 50 years (Ref. 59043).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Distribution

Range Description

It is restricted to Lake Ohrid in Albania and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM).
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Europe: Lake Ohrid in Albania and Macedonia.
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Lake Ohrid: Albania and Macedonia.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

33.6 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 12290)); max. published weight: 685 g (Ref. 12290); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 12290)
  • Rakaj, N. 1995 Conservation status of freshwater fish of Albania. Biological Conservation 72:195-199. (Ref. 12290)
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished from all its congeners in Balkan Peninsula by the following unique characters: usually 54-55 vertebrae (56-63 in other species of Salmo); and teeth on vomer extending to posterior-most end of shaft. Additional characters, but not unique, useful for its identification include the following: 100-114 scales along lateral line; 11-12 scale rows between lateral line and adipose; 2 supraorbitals; snout blunt, its length about equal to eye diameter; body plain yellowish silvery or with a few small, x-shaped pinkish dots; 18-22 gill rakers; and 25-29 pyloric caeca (Ref. 59043).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a lacustrine species living at depth 40 to 60 m. Spawning occurs in December to February in the coastal areas. It is commercially exploited and also reared in fish farms.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater; depth range 40 - 60 m (Ref. 12290)
  • Rakaj, N. 1995 Conservation status of freshwater fish of Albania. Biological Conservation 72:195-199. (Ref. 12290)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Spawns along shores. Egg hatch in 45-55 days at 10° C (Ref. 59043).
  • Rakaj, N. 1995 Conservation status of freshwater fish of Albania. Biological Conservation 72:195-199. (Ref. 12290)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Salmo ohridanus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D2

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Crivelli, A.J.

Reviewer/s
Freyhoff, J. & Kottelat, M. (Mediterranean Workshop, Dec. 2004)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is threatened by artificial hybridisation with Salmo letnica, by overfishing and poaching, and by degradation of the water quality. However, with no current information to demonstrate a population decline it is assessed as Vulnerable D2 being restricted to Lake Ohrid.

History
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
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Population

Population
No data.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Intentional hybridization with Salmo letnica in fish farms during the last 50 years. The long-term impacts of this hybridization are however, unclear (Rakaj and Flloko 1995). Also subject to heavy fishing but it is still abundant. Future threats include water pollution due to agriculture and tourism.
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Vulnerable (VU) (D2)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Existing fisheries regulations should be helping to protect the species but they are seldom enforced
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
  • Crivelli, A.J. 1996 The freshwater fish endemic to the Mediterranean region. An action plan for their conservation. Tour du Valat Publication, 171 p. (Ref. 26100)
  • Rakaj, N. 1995 Conservation status of freshwater fish of Albania. Biological Conservation 72:195-199. (Ref. 12290)
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Wikipedia

Salmo ohridanus

Salmo ohridanus, also known by the local name as the belvica, is a species of freshwater salmonid fish, endemic to Lake Ohrid in Albania and Macedonia.[1][2][3]

Salmo ohridanus is a relatively small fish, usually shorter than 30 cm and less than 0.5 kg weight.[1] It is a commercially exploited species subject to heavy fishing, and has been bred in fish farms for over 50 years. It has also been intentionally hybridized with another endemic species, the Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica). It is threatened by the hybridization, degradation of water quality and overfishing; but the stock remains abundant.[2]

In earlier literature the belvica has variously been treated as belonging to suggested endemic genera Acantholingua and Salmothymus.[4][3] Genetic studies however indicate it is a good member of the Salmo genus, and closest to the softmouth trout Salmo obtusirostris. Nevertheless it is quite distinct from the brown trout complex.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2011). "Salmo ohridanus" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  2. ^ a b Crivelli, A.J. 2006. Salmo ohridanus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1 Downloaded on 19 May 2010.
  3. ^ a b c Lake Ohrid trouts Balkan trout restoration group. Downloaded on 19 May 2010.
  4. ^ Eschmeyer W (2007) Acantholingua Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Downloaded on 19 May 2010.
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