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BiologyA common deepwater dogfish of the outer continental shelves and upper slopes, commonest below 200 m (Ref. 247); usually benthic and epibenthic at depths from 50-1440 m with most records from 200-600 m (Compagno, pers. comm. 07/07). Solitary (Ref. 26340). Feeds mainly on bony fishes such as hake, epigonids, lanternfish, herring, smelts, cods, rattails, squid and crustaceans (Ref. 247, IUCN workshop 07/07). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Marketed smoked and dried salted for human consumption; also processed into fishmeal and a source of liver oil for squalene (Ref. 247). Number of litter recorded, one in Mediterranean females, and possibly 1 or 2 for the species. Males still immature at 45-58 cm, fully at 80-94 cm, suggesting maturity at 60-80 cm DW; females immature at 42-96 cm This species is fished in Eastern Atlantic by bottom trawls, long lines, fixed bottom nets, hook and line and pelagic trawls; caught and discarded, or utilised from by-catch fisheries (IUCN discussion 07/07).