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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

A common deepwater dogfish of the outer continental shelves and upper slopes, on or near the bottom. Adults feed on bony fishes and squid. Males mature by 80 cm TL (Ref. 94782). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Utilized dried salted for human consumption and probably for fishmeal and liver oil (Ref. 247).
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Centrophorus uyato (Rafinesque, 1810)

Sea of Marmara : 1100-31 (1 spc.), 19.05.1989 , Offshore of Yesilkoey , trammel net , 142 m, N. Meriç ; 1100-26 (1 spc.), 11.08.1991 , Offshore of Guerpinar , 250 m , N. Meriç .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 31-31, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Distribution

Range Description

Ranges from Meditteranean and Black Sea, Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and southwest Pacific. Australian populations may be taxonomically distinct from those elsewhere. Australian populations are documented as being from Esperance to Geraldton (Western Australia) and Fowlers Bay (South Austrlia) to Port Stephens (New South Wales), including Tasmania (Last and Stevens 1994), but further study of this distribution is necessary given the taxonomic problems in this genus (J. Stevens CSIRO, pers. comm., Daley et al. 2002).
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Atlantic (including Mediterranean Sea); ? Indo-West Pacific.
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Western Central Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico. Eastern Atlantic: western Mediterranean and Gibraltar to Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire to Nigeria, Cameroon to Angola, northern Namibia. Indian Ocean: southern Mozambique, uncertain records from India; Western Australia (Ref. 6871). Western Pacific: Australia (Ref. 6871); occurrence in Taiwan needs validation. Validity of this species is uncertain (Ref. 27638, not in Ref. 35766).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 1100 mm NG
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Max. size

110 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000)); max. published weight: 7,340 g (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

A small, slender gulper shark with a long, narrow snout, a short 1st dorsal fin and a high 2nd dorsal fin; pectoral rear tips usually very long; denticles small and flat (Ref. 5578). Brownish-grey above, light grey below (Ref. 5578).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Demersal on the continental shelf and upper-middle continental slope in depths of 50 to 1,400 m. In Australia, main depth range is 400 to 650 m (Last and Stevens 1994), but has been recorded from 220 to 740 m (Graham et al. 1997). Ovoviviparous, usually producing one pup. The diet consists of bony fishes and cephalopods (Last and Stevens 1994), but also includes crustaceans (Daley et al. 2002). Length at first maturity is 80 cm for males (Last and Stevens 1994) and 100 cm for females (Daley et al. 2002). Size at birth is 35-45 cm (Last and Stevens 1994, Daley et al. 2002).

Preliminary ageing studies by Fenton (2001) suggest that C. uyato lives to at least 46 years of age (n=8). The low fecundity, high longevity and probable late age at first maturity of this species prevent it from quick recovery after sustained fishing of its populations in the last 20 to 30 years (Graham et al. 2001, Daley et al. 2002).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 62 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 36 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 205 - 732
  Temperature range (°C): 6.380 - 15.214
  Nitrate (umol/L): 11.847 - 37.580
  Salinity (PPS): 34.534 - 35.980
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.769 - 4.837
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.698 - 2.571
  Silicate (umol/l): 5.526 - 23.083

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 205 - 732

Temperature range (°C): 6.380 - 15.214

Nitrate (umol/L): 11.847 - 37.580

Salinity (PPS): 34.534 - 35.980

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.769 - 4.837

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.698 - 2.571

Silicate (umol/l): 5.526 - 23.083
 
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Depth: 50 - 1400m.
From 50 to 1400 meters.

Habitat: bathydemersal.
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 50 - 1400 m (Ref. 247), usually 200 - ? m (Ref. 247)
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Depth range based on 62 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 36 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 205 - 732
  Temperature range (°C): 6.380 - 15.214
  Nitrate (umol/L): 11.847 - 37.580
  Salinity (PPS): 34.534 - 35.980
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.769 - 4.837
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.698 - 2.571
  Silicate (umol/l): 5.526 - 23.083

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 205 - 732

Temperature range (°C): 6.380 - 15.214

Nitrate (umol/L): 11.847 - 37.580

Salinity (PPS): 34.534 - 35.980

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.769 - 4.837

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.698 - 2.571

Silicate (umol/l): 5.526 - 23.083
 
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Trophic Strategy

A common deepwater dogfish of the outer continental shelves and upper slopes, on or near the bottom. Feeds on bony fish, such as myctophids and squid (Ref. 58748).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Number of young usually only 1. Size at birth between 40 and 50 cm (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Centrophorus uyato

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2003
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Pogonoski, J. & Pollard, D. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)

Reviewer/s
Cavanagh, R.D., McAuley, R. (Shark Red List Authority) & Graham, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
Declines of over 99% between the years 1976 to 1977 and 1996 to 1997 between the Sydney area (central New South Wales) and the Eden-Gabo Island area (southern New South Wales/northern Victoria) have been documented by a fishery independent trawl survey. The relatively narrow continental slope habitat of this species (which is fished throughout its entire depth range) suggests that it may now only be present in any numbers in areas that are non-trawlable. However, as dropline fishers also harvest this species off New South Wales (under NSW jurisdiction), further pressure may be placed on it in such areas. There was a small, short-lived fishery out of Esperance, Western Australia for C. uyato in the mid-1990s, which ceased due to rapid catch declines and there may be some bycatch in the Western Australia Commonwealth-managed trawl fishery. As with other deepwater sharks, particularly this genus, the low fecundity, high longevity and probable late age at first maturity of this species not only result in extremely rapid population depletion in fisheries, but also prevent it from quick recovery after such depletion.

This species is currently Data Deficient globally due to the taxonomic problems. However, deepwater demersal trawl fisheries are expanding in other parts of its potential range, and with the observed declines described above, together with the knowledge that its biology is similar to other deepwater shark species, this, and related species warrants urgent conservation attention globally
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Population

Population
The population size (although suspected to be much reduced) and number and size of subpopulations are unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
1) Targeted fishing using deep set gillnets off South Australia and eastern Victoria in the Southern Shark Fishery. This targeting had all but ceased by 1995 because of declining catches (Daley et al. 2002).

2) Demersal trawling (South East Trawl Fishery, SETF) in New South Wales and eastern Victoria (Daley et al. 2002). Declines of over 99% have been documented between the years 1976 to 1977 and 1996 to 1997 between the Sydney area (central New South Wales) and the Eden-Gabo I. area (southern New South Wales/northern Victoria) by the trawl research vessel Kapala (fishery independent survey) (Graham et al. 1997, Graham et al. 2001, Andrew et al. 1997). Catches in the abovementioned areas in 220 to 605 m (i.e., most of the preferred depth range of this species) declined from a mean of 106.9 kg/h in 1976 to 1977 to a mean of 0.3 kg/h (a total of only 14 specimens) in 1996-97.

3) Droplining (under New South Wales Fisheries jurisdiction) along the continental slope within its range (although catches are relatively minor).

4) Previously targeted by gillnetting in Western Australia shark fishery (1996-1999). Fishery has since ceased: according to fishers, catch rates began to decline dramatically after 2 to 3 years (R. McAuley Western Australia Fisheries pers. comm. March 2003). Centrophorus dogfishes are marketed for their flesh and liver oil (squalene) (Daley et al. 2002).
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Not Evaluated
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Recent (Jan 2003) management changes to the SETF by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority limit the combined catch of Centrophorus dogfishes to a maximum of 150 kg trunked weight per trip. In addition, livers of Centrophorus are not to be retained unless the individual carcasses from which they were obtained are also landed (J. Stevens CSIRO, pers. comm.).

Centrophorus uyato has also been nominated for listing as a Vulnerable species on the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). If listed as Vulnerable, the EPBC Act requires that a Recovery Plan be put in place within a five year period (Sara Williams, Environment Australia, pers. comm.).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: unknown; price reliability:
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