Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: pipefish (English), pez-pipa (Espanol)
 
Bryx veleronis Herald, 1940

Offshore pipefish,     Sailor pipefish

 

Head short, 10-13% of SL;  snout short (< ½ head length),  with strongly concave profile, with low, finely serrated ridge along top;  a ridge along top of operculum; 14-15 trunk rings, 33-37 tail rings; ridges on upper body and tail not joined; ridge on mid side of body straight, ends near anus; lower body ridge joins lower tail ridge; dorsal 21-28 rays; pectoral 10-13 rays; no anal fin; brood pouch under tail, with semi-overlapping plates; tail not prehensile; tail fin small, round, 10 rays.

Body and head light to dark brown, with pale bars, snout paler;  white marks on opercle; tail brown, dorsal and pectoral clear.



        Size: 6.5 cm.

Habitat: soft bottoms.

Depth: 3-20 m.

        Costa Rica and Panama, Gorgona, Cocos, Malpelo, Galapagos and the Revillagigedos.   
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Biology

Males may be mature at 4.5 cm SL. Planktivore (Ref. 28023). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
  • Dawson, C.E. 1985 Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 5316)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and is found from Costa Rica to Panama, including Gorgona, Malpelo, Galapagos and the Revillagigedo Islands.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo Islands to the Galapagos Islands, including the offshore islands of Costa Rica and Panama.
  • Dawson, C.E. 1985 Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 5316)
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 3 (S) - 20 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 6.5 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 60 mm SL
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Max. size

6.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5316))
  • Dawson, C.E. 1985 Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 5316)
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Type Information

Paratype for Bryx veleronis
Catalog Number: USNM 101686
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): W. Schmitt
Year Collected: 1935
Locality: Off Monkey Pt. Gorgona Island, Colombia., Colombia, Pacific
Depth (m): 40 to 40
  • Paratype:
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Paratype for Bryx veleronis
Catalog Number: USNM 101691
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): W. Schmitt
Year Collected: 1934
Locality: Galapagos, Post Office Bay, Charles Island., Charles Island (Floreana or Santa Maria), Galapagos Islands, Pacific
Depth (m): 15 to 18
  • Paratype:
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Paratype for Bryx veleronis
Catalog Number: USNM 101689
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): W. Schmitt
Year Collected: 1934
Locality: Silver Bay, James I., James Island (Santiago or San Salvador), Galapagos Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is poorly known. It is thought to inhabit soft substrata between 3 and 20 m deep. It has been found in the stomachs of yellowfin tuna (Lourie et al. 1999).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 27 - 37m.
From 27 to 37 meters.
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Environment

benthopelagic; marine; depth range 27 - 37 m (Ref. 12965)
  • Eschmeyer, W.N. 1997 PISCES. Eschmeyer's PISCES database as published on the Internet in June 1997, URL: gopher://gopher.calacademy.org:640/7. (Ref. 12965)
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3 - 14
  Temperature range (°C): 27.485 - 27.485
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.498 - 2.498
  Salinity (PPS): 33.044 - 33.044
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.602 - 4.602
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.409 - 0.409
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.926 - 2.926

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3 - 14
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore, Planktivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Brooded, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Sorensen, M., Rojas, P.A. & Acero, A.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.

Justification
This species is poorly known. More information is needed on this species distribution, population, habitat requirements, ecology and threats. It is listed as Data Deficient.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There is little known about the major threats for this species. In addition, given its relatively restricted range and shallow water habitat, this species may be negatively impacted by oceanographic environmental changes from future ENSO and global climate change events (Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004) including increased frequency of storm events.
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Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls into a number of marine protected areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (WDPA 2006). More research is needed on population, distribution, habitat requirements, and potential threats for this poorly known species.
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