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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in the sublittoral zone (Ref. 11230), under ledges and caves of rocky reefs (Ref. 9710). Forms schools (Ref. 6620). Adults are found between 20 and 200 m depth, juveniles occasionally in shallower water (Ref. 9650). Regularly displayed in public aquaria.
  • Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino 1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
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Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa (Ref. 6620) and Mauritius (Ref. 9710) to southern Japan (Ref. 559), southwest Sumatra to Bali Strait, Timor Sea in Indonesia, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), Darwin to Northwest Cape, Australia and from New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
  • Gloerfelt-Tarp, T. and P.J. Kailola 1984 Trawled fishes of southern Indonesia and northwestern Australia. Australian Development Assistance Bureau, Australia, Directorate General of Fishes, Indonesia, and German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Federal Republic of Germany. 407 p. (Ref. 5978)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, north to Korea, southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to South Australia, Kermadec Islands and northern New Zealand.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 5 - 6; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11 - 12; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 9 - 11
  • Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino 1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
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Size

Maximum size: 170 mm TL
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Max. size

17.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3131))
  • Sainsbury, K.J., P.J. Kailola and G.G. Leyland 1985 Continental shelf fishes of the northern and north-western Australia. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research; Clouston & Hall and Peter Pownall Fisheries Information Service, Canberra, Australia. 375 p. (Ref. 3131)
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Diagnostic Description

Body except for caudal peduncle armored with huge, immovable scales. Lateral line scales present but without opening. Dorsal fin spines large, without membrane. Pelvic fin spine large, with locking mechanism. Anal fin without spine. Body yellow, scales outlined in black; lower jaw black. There is a pair of light organs each side of chin.
  • Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino 1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 10 - 200 m (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 93 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 56 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 12 - 773
  Temperature range (°C): 4.058 - 26.503
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.385 - 30.143
  Salinity (PPS): 34.336 - 35.239
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.062 - 4.842
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.175 - 2.230
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.468 - 30.560

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 12 - 773

Temperature range (°C): 4.058 - 26.503

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.385 - 30.143

Salinity (PPS): 34.336 - 35.239

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.062 - 4.842

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.175 - 2.230

Silicate (umol/l): 3.468 - 30.560
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 10 - 200m.
From 10 to 200 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Pineapple fish.  (Houttyn, 1782)  Luminescent bacteria located in two black spots near lower jaw. Attains 17 cm. Schools in clear water above rocky bottom. Common in Japan; Indo-West Pacific and Red Sea south to Mossel Bay in 40-200 metres.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits rocky reefs (Ref. 9137). Found in the sublittoral zone (Ref. 11230), under ledges and caves of rocky reefs (Ref. 9710). Adults are found between 20 and 200 m depth, juveniles occasionally in shallower water (Ref. 9650).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Monocentris japonica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Monocentris japonicus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCTGTATCTCGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGCATAGTCGGCACAGCCCTA---AGCCTCCTCATCCGGGCTGAACTTAGTCAGCCAGGGGCTTTACTGGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTTATTGTTACAGCACATGCTTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATAATTGGTGGCTTTGGGAACTGACTTGTACCTCTAATA---ATCGGAGCCCCCGACATGGCATTTCCTCGCATAAATAATATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTTCCCCCATCATTCCTCCTTCTCCTTGCCTCTTCTGGGGTTGAAGCGGGGGCCGGTACAGGCTGAACAGTCTACCCGCCTCTCGCAGGAAACCTTGCCCACGCAGGTGCCTCCGTGGACCTA---ACCATTTTCTCCCTGCATTTGGCCGGTATTTCCTCTATTTTAGGGGCTATCAACTTTATTACAACTATCATTAATATAAAACCTCCCGCCATTTCCCAATACCAGACCCCTCTGTTCGTATGGGCCGTTTTAATTACAGCAGTCCTTCTCCTCCTATCCCTCCCCGTACTTGCAGCC---GGCATCACCATGCTCCTAACAGATCGTAACCTAAACACAACCTTCTTTGATCCTGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCTATCCTGTATCAACACCTG------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Monocentris japonicus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
  • Paxton, J.R. 1999 Monocentrididae. Pineapple fishes. p. 2214. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
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Wikipedia

Monocentris japonica

Monocentris japonicus is a pinecone fish of the family Monocentridae, found in the tropical Indo-West Pacific Oceans, at depths between 2 and 100 m and can be found on both rocky and coral reefs. The fish is nocturnal and shelters in caves and under ledges during the day.[1]

Morphology[edit]

The pineconefish is yellow with distinct large scales outlined in black.[1] It has light-producing organs filled with luminescent bacteria on each side of the lower jaw the purpose of with is not known, but may help it to see at night or to attract prey. The fish grows to 17 cm, but is more commonly found up to 12 cm.[2]

In captivity[edit]

Pinecone fish are often kept by aquarists because they are not aggressive and easy to keep. In aquaria, they are usually fed fresh marine foods or brine shrimp.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bray, Dianne. "Japanese Pineapplefish, Monocentris japonica". Fishes of Australia. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  2. ^ "Monocentris japonica (Houttuyn, 1782) Pineconefish". Fishbase. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 


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