Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

A gregarious species which positions itself near the surface between the stems of emerging plants. It is frequently found in stagnant waters. They are generally peaceful, but when there are too many of them during feeding, they bite each other's fins (Ref. 12225). Feeds on worms, crustaceans, insects and plants (Ref. 7020). Oviparous (Ref. 205). This species is part of a complex of `blood' tetras, hybrids of which are commonly offered in the aquarium trade. Aquarium keeping: aggressive; in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539).
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Distribution

South America: Amazon, Guaporé and Paraguay River basins.
  • Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. … 2003 Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 38376)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38376&speccode=10622 External link.
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Amazon and Guaporé River basins; Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil, French Guiana (introduces) and Paraguay.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 32.8 mm SL
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Max. size

4.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 81048))
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Type Information

Syntype for Hyphessobrycon eques
Catalog Number: USNM 120269
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1865
Locality: Serpa, Brazil, Brazil, South America
  • Syntype: Durbin. 1908. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 52 (6): 100.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater; pH range: 5.0 - 7.8; dH range: 10 - 25
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Trophic Strategy

A gragarious species which positions itself near the surface between the stems of emerging plants. It is frequently found in stagnant waters. Feeds on worms, crustaceans, insects and plants (Ref. 7020). Food dominated by zooplankton (Ref. 56181).
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Diseases and Parasites

White spot Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Bacterial Infections (general). Bacterial diseases
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous (Ref. 205). In captivity, spawning is preceded by vigorous driving by the male during the early hours of the day and eggs mostly sink to the bottom (Ref. 7020).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyphessobrycon eques

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 133
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Hyphessobrycon eques

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACCCTGTACTTGATATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGCATAGTAGGCACGGCTTTG---AGCCTCTTAATTCGGGCAGAACTTGGACAACCTGGGACCCTCCTAGGTGAC---GATCAAGTATACAATGTTTTAGTTACTGCACATGCTTTCGTTATAATTTTCTTTATGGTAATACCCGTGATAATTGGAGGTTTTGGCAACTGACTGGTCCCATTAATA---ATTGGTGCCCCTGACATGGCCTTCCCCCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTGCCCCCGTCTTTCCTCCTCCTCTTAGCATCATCTGGTGTTGAGGCTGGGGCCGGGACAGGGTGGACTGTCTATCCCCCCCTTGCCGGAAATCTGGCACATGCAGGGGCCTCTGTAGACCTA---ACTATCTTCTCACTTCACCTAGCCGGTGTCTCTTCAATTCTAGGAGCAATTAACTTTATTACAACTATTATCAATATAAAACCTCCAGCCATATCGCAGTACCAGACACCCCTATTCGTCTGAGCTGTCCTGGTAACGGCTGTCCTTCTTCTTTTATCTCTCCCAGTTTTGGCAGCC---GGGATCACTATACTCCTTACTGATCGCAACCTGAATACCGCATTCTTTGACCCTGCGGGTGGGGGTGACCCAATTCTTTATCAACATCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: highly commercial
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Wikipedia

Serpae tetra

Serpae tetras are one species of the genus Hyphessobrycon, and are now known as Hyphessobrycon eques. These South American tropical characids are popular aquarium fishes, often identified as "red minor tetras". They are found in the wild in the Madeira and Guaporé regions of the Amazon River, and in upper Paraguay.

In the aquarium[edit]

A long-finned variety of H. eques

Serpae tetras prefer water temperatures ranging from 72-79°F (22-26°C). They will generally do better and show off their best colors in soft, neutral to slightly acidic water. As with any other schooling fish, they thrive in large groups and should be kept in schools of at least six fish. The tank should be well-planted, providing shelter and hiding spots.

If any aggression is seen in the fish, it is usually among conspecifics, especially if they are kept in large groups where they can establish a pecking order (a behavior similar to Puntius tetrazona).

Breeding[edit]

Breeding, as with most other tetras, can be difficult due to the few obvious differences between the genders. However, males are usually slimmer and smaller than females. Also a visible difference in the shape of the swim bladder can be seen above and behind the silverish abdominal cavity. To breed these fish, they should be given a small, dedicated breeding tank planted with thick bunches of fine-leaved plants such as Myriophyllum on which they can lay eggs. Filtering through peat moss can also be helpful. The eggs hatch in about a day.

The average lifespan for a serpae tetra is about seven years.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • H. Axelrod; G. Axelrod, W. Burgess, N. Pronek, H. Axelrod, J. Walls (2007). Dr. Axelrod's Atlas of Freshwater Aquarium Fishes (Eleventh Edition). T.F.H. Publications. p. 292. 
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