Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Feeds on worms, small insects and crustaceans (Ref. 7020). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539).
  • Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. … 2003 Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 38376)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38376&speccode=10622 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known from the Upper Paraguay and Guaporé River basins, in Bolivia and Brazil.
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South America: Upper Paraguay and Guaporé River basins.
  • Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. … 2003 Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 38376)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38376&speccode=10622 External link.
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Upper Paraguay and Guaporé River basins: Bolivia and Brazil.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 45 mm ---
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Max. size

3.6 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 38376))
  • Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. … 2003 Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 38376)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38376&speccode=10622 External link.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
H. megalopterus is a benthopelagic (ecological region at the lowest level of water body) species. Lives in slow flowing waters, associated flood plain areas. Aggregates around submerged vegetation.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater; pH range: 6.0 - 7.5; dH range: 18
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on worms, small insects and crustaceans.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyphessobrycon megalopterus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 26
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Hyphessobrycon megalopterus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACCCTCTATTTAATGTTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGTATAGTTGGGACAGCTCTA---AGCCTTTTAATTCGGGCAGAACTTGGCCAACCCGGAACCTTATTAGGTGAC---GACCAAATTTACAATGTCCTAGTCACTGCCCATGCTTTCGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTCATACCCGTTATAATTGGAGGCTTCGGAAATTGACTAGTTCCACTGATA---ATTGGTGCCCCGGACATAGCATTTCCCCGAATAAACAATATGAGTTTCTGACTACTACCTCCATCTTTTCTACTCCTCTTAGCATCTTCTGGTGTTGAAGCCGGTGCTGGAACAGGATGAACCGTCTACCCCCCTCTTGCCGGGAACCTAGCACATGCTGGAGCTTCTGTAGACCTA---ACCATTTTTTCACTTCACCTAGCTGGTGTCTCTTCGATTTTAGGGGCTATTAATTTCATTACAACTATCATCAATATAAAACCCCCAGCCATATCTCAATACCAAACACCTCTATTTGTTTGGGCTGTCTTGGTTACAGCCGTCCTCCTTCTCCTCTCCCTCCCTGTCTTAGCAGCC---GGAATTACCATGCTACTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACCTCATTTTTTGATCCTGCAGGAGGAGGTGATCCAATCCTCTATCAACATCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Reis, R & Lima, F.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)

Contributor/s

Justification
Assessed as Least Concern due to its very large distribution and the lack of any known major widespread threats.
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Population

Population
The species was recently collected in great numbers in both the Paraguay and Guaporé basins (Lima pers. comm. 2007).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is not currently under threat; the harvesting levels for the pet trade are very considered small.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures in place.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Black phantom tetra

The black phantom tetra (Hyphessobrycon megalopterus) is a freshwater fish of the characin family (family Characidae) of order Characiformes. It is native to the Paraguay, Guaporé, and Mamore river basins in Brazil and Bolivia.

This fish is of roughly tetragonal shape, light grey in coloring, with a black patch, surrounded by iridescent silver edging, posterior of the gills on each side. The male's fins are black, as is the female's dorsal fin; the female's pelvic, anal, and adipose fins are reddish in color. A long-finned variety, apparently developed by captive breeders, is sometimes sold (the male has elongated dorsal and anal fins even in the wild form). The black phantom tetra reaches a maximum overall length of approximately 4.5 cm (1.75 in).

The black phantom tetra's natural diet consist of small crustaceans, insects, and worms.

H. megalopterus is one of the more popular tetras sold in the aquarium trade. Megalomphodus megalopterus and Megalamphodus rogoaguae are obsolete synonyms for this species. While it is not particularly colorful, it makes up for this by its display behavior: the males are territorial and defend their space against their neighbors by presenting themselves in profile with the dorsal and anal fins fully extended, and the dark color intensified, making the edging of the body patch stand out prominently. Sometimes they exchange blows which can tear the fins, but this damage heals quickly. Unlike other tetra who prefer to live in large shoals, they will also do fine when kept in a group of four or five individuals, making them suitable for smaller aquaria. There should still be enough space for the males to stake territories and present themselves to best effort, however.

Gender[edit]

The male black phantom tetras have longer fins than the females and when in breeding condition, the females become plumper, but the biggest difference is in their color. The males have almost no red, while the smaller fins of the female both on the top and underneath them are red. The adipose fin, on the top of the body behind the larger dorsal fin is much more noticeable in the females than the males, because in females it is red while in the males it is grey. The female's dorsal fin has a more intense black than the male's. When the fish are in breeding condition, the colours of both sexes become more distinct, with the male showing its black fins more obviously.

Breeding[edit]

The fish should be well conditioned to induce spawning. If possible, live foods should be included in the conditioning period. Frozen foods like bloodworms are also a good conditioning food.

The black phantom tetra is an egg-scattering species. To stimulate breeding, lower the pH to about 5.5-6, and decrease the general hardness of the water to below four degrees. The breeding tank should have plants, both rooted and floating, and low light.

A female black phantom tetra will produce about 300 eggs. These fish will eat their own eggs and fry, so the parents are usually removed after spawning. Breeding the black phanton tetra is described on the following websites: http://www.aqua-fish.net/show.php?h=blackphantomtetra http://www.bettatrading.com.au/Black-Phantom-Tetra.php http://www.bbayaquariums.com/select-action.cfm?ID=43

Raising the fry[edit]

The babies will need infusoria (protozoa) at first. Commercial fry foods of suitable sizes can be used, but at all stages the young fish benefit from live food of the right size.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

A male in full display courtesy of akvarieforum.no

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