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BiologyMid-water plankton feeders which feed almost exclusively on copepods. Form small feeding aggregations (10-20 fishes) in calm inshore waters, but in deeper water offshore or in areas subject to strong currents, aggregations of up to 500 individuals may occur (Ref. 26966). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).