Kirchmair et al. (2004) recognized eight species in the mushroom genus Omphalotus: O. olearius (from southern Europe), O. illudens (from northern Europe and North America), O. subilludens (from the southeastern United States; Ammirati et al. 1985), O. olivascens (from the west coast of the United States and Mexico), O. mexicanus (from Middle America), O. nidiformis (from Australia), and O. japonicus (from Japan). Their molecular phylogenetic studies indicated two major clades within Omphalotus, the first consisting of O. illudens and O. mexicanus and the second including O. olearius, O. olivascens, O. japonicus, O. nidiformis, and O. subilludens. Although O. illudens and O. olearius have often been treated as synonyms, much evidence now indicates that both are valid species. In the analyses by Kirchmair et al., Omphalotus japonicus, a species formerly placed in the genus Lampteromyces based on its morphology, clustered as the sister group of O. olearius.
These mushrooms, especially O. illudens, are sometimes known as Jack O'Lanterns. This name derives from the orange color and the fact that the gills often glow eerily greenish (clearly visible under very dark conditions).
(Lincoff 1981; Arora 1986; Kirchmair et al. 2004 and references therein)
- Ammirati, J.F., J.A. Traquair, P.A. Horgen. 1985. Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northern United States and Canada. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis, Minnesota.
- Arora, D. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified, 2nd. edition. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley.
- Kirchmair, M., S. Morandell, D. Stolz, and R. Pöder. 2004. Phylogeny of the Genus Omphalotus Based on Nuclear Ribosomal DNA-Sequences. Mycologia 96(6): 1253-1260.
- Lincoff, G. 1981.The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
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Omphalotus is a genus of basidiomycete mushroom formally described by Victor Fayod in 1889. Members have the traditional cap and stem toadstool form. They are saprobic, and grow in clumps on trees. The best known and type species is the jack-o'-lantern mushroom (Omphalotus olearius). Species of Omphalotus, which are poisonous, have been mistaken for chanterelles. Some Omphalotus species have bioluminescent properties. All are presumed poisonous, causing gastrointestinal symptoms.
Victor Fayod originally erected the genus with Pleurotus olearius and P. eryngii as its principal species in 1889, placing it in a tribus ("alliance") with the genera Pleurotus and Pleurotellus.
The relationships of the genus have become clearer with genetic analysis. Rolf Singer placed it and the related Lampteromyces in the Boletales due to the presence of the pigment variegatic acid. More specifically the genera were placed in the family Paxillaceae. However, it was found that fungi of the genus Omphalotus break down lignin while those of the genus Paxillus break down cellulose.
Since then, the genera have been found to have a close relationship with the genus Nothopanus, and the whole group to lie within the agaric family Marasmiaceae. The group has been classified in their own family Omphalotaceae.
The type species is the jack-o'-lantern mushroom (Omphalotus olearius) from Europe. Another eight species have been described. The seven species examined genetically form two clades. One is an illudens clade containing (O. illudens) of Europe and North America, and (O. mexicanus) from Central America. The other is an olearius clade containing O. olearius and the tsukiyotake (O. japonicus) from eastern Asia as sister species, and the western jack-o'-lantern (O. olivascens) and (O. subilludens).
|Phylogeny and relationships of Omphalotus species based on ITS ribosomal DNA sequences.|
Fungi of this genus produce fleshy mushrooms with smooth or fibrous caps with gills and fleshy or fibrous stems growing in clumps on wood. O. mexicanus has dark blue fruiting bodies tinted with yellow.
Many members of the genus are known to be toxic, with consumption leading to gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting and at times diarrhea. The toxic ingredient is a sesquiterpene compound known as illudin S.
Distribution and ecology
- Earle, Franklin Sumner (1906). "The Genera of North American Gill Fungi". Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden 5: 373–451 (see p. 432). http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/31042604.
- "Omphalotus Fayod". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. http://www.mycobank.org/BioloMICS.aspx?Table=Mycobank&Rec=57045&Fields=All. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
- Alexopoulos CJ, Mims CW, Blackwell M. (1996). Introductory Mycology. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-52229-5.
- Fayod, Victor (1889). "Prodrome d'une histoire naturelle des Agaricinés" (in French) (PDF). Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique 9 (7): 181–411 (see p. 338). http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/Imagenes/P0044_S7_09/P0044_S7_09_0342.pdf.
- Petersen, Ronald H.; Hughes, Karen W. (1997). "Mating systems in Omphalotus (Paxillaceae, Agaricales)". Plant Systematics and Evolution 211 (3–4): 217–29. ISSN 0378-2697.
- Kirchmair, Martin; Morandell, Sandra; Stolz, Daniela; Pöder, Reinhold; Sturmbauer (2004). "Phylogeny of the Genus Omphalotus Based on Nuclear Ribosomal DNA-sequences". Mycologia 96 (6): 1253–60. http://www.mycologia.org/content/96/6/1253.full.
- Paul F. Cannon, P. M. Kirk, P. F. Cannon (2007). Fungal Families of the World. CABI. pp. 247–48. ISBN 0851998275. http://books.google.com/books?id=Lw1VLSH1xnAC&pg=PA247.
- "omphaloid, adj.". The Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. April 2008. http://www.oed.com/. Retrieved 2012-12-12. (subscription required)
- Joseph F. Ammirati, Traquair, James Alvin, Paul A. Horgen (1985). Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northern United States and Canada. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 290–91. ISBN 0816614075. http://books.google.com/books?id=nhWbsGB7z4cC&pg=PA290.
- Benjamin, Denis R. (1995). Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas — a handbook for naturalists, mycologists and physicians. New York: WH Freeman and Company. pp. 366–67. ISBN 0-7167-2600-9.
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