Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: damselfish (English), major (English), castañeta (Espanol), jaqueta (Espanol)
 
Stegastes beebei (Nichols, 1924)


Galapagos ringtail damselfish,     Southern whitetail major


Body oval, compressed; 1 pair of nostrils; margin of preopercle serrated; margin of bone under eye serrated, without notch it and the bone before it; mouth small, protrusible;  teeth in single row, long and close-set;  lower gill rakers 11 (10-12); a single continuous dorsal fin, XII, 15 (14-16); anal rays II, 13 (rarely 14); pectoral rays 20-21 (rarely 22); no projecting short spines at upper and lower base of tail fin; caudal fin bluntly forked; scales are moderately large and rough; body scaled, head largely scaled (snout scaled to nostrils), as are the basal parts of the median fins; lateral-line scales 20 (rarely 19); lateral line incomplete, ends under end of dorsal fin base.



Dark brown with darker scale outlines, often with white band on caudal peduncle, also with a blue iris and white or yellow outer edge of pectoral fin. Juvenile  dark with red nape, upper back and spiny dorsal, and a dark ocellus at rear base of dorsal fin.


Size: grows to 17 cm.

Habitat: common along rocky shores.

Depth: 0-15 m.



Resident populations in the Galapagos Islands, Malpelo and Cocos, vagrants on the coast of Costa Rica and in the Pearl Islands, Panama.
   
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Biology

Adults inhabit coral and rocky reefs (Ref. 9334). Somewhat territorial, they chase away small intruders (Ref. 5227). Omnivorous, they graze on algae and nibbles at small crustaceans and the tentacles of anemones (Ref. 28023). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found in the Galápagos, Malpelo and Cocos Islands. It has also been recorded as a vagrant on the coast of Costa Rica and in the Pearl Islands, Panama. Given its shallow-water, reef-associated habitat, this species is estimated to have an area of occupancy of less than 2,000 km².
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, TEP oceanic island (s) endemic, Multiple oceanic islands endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Eastern Pacific: off Panama, Malpelo Island (Colombia), Cocos Island (Costa Rica), and the Galapagos Islands.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 15 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal soft rays (total): 15; Analsoft rays: 13
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Size

Length max (cm): 17.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 120 mm TL
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Max. size

15.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 28023))
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Diagnostic Description

Usually with 14 or 15 spines and 10 or 11 gill rakers (Ref. 7247).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits coral and rocky reefs (Allen 1991) to depths of 20 m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 1 - 5 m (Ref. 9334)
  • Schneider, W. and F. Krupp 1995 Pomacentridae. Castañetas, jaquetas y petacas. p. 1392-1404. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9334)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9334&speccode=11853 External link.
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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 31.5
  Temperature range (°C): 25.609 - 27.485
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.498 - 9.845
  Salinity (PPS): 33.044 - 33.754
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.830 - 4.602
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.409 - 0.831
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.926 - 6.045

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 31.5

Temperature range (°C): 25.609 - 27.485

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.498 - 9.845

Salinity (PPS): 33.044 - 33.754

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.830 - 4.602

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.409 - 0.831

Silicate (umol/l): 2.926 - 6.045
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 1 - 5m.
From 1 to 5 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Omnivore

Diet: benthic microalgae, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), sessile crustacea, sessile worms
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Stegastes beebei

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B2ac(iv); D2

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, R., Edgar, G., Merlen, G., Zapata, F. & Barraza, E.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is only known from three locations (Galápagos, Cocos and Malpelo Islands), but the majority of its adult poulation is thought to be restricted to the Galapagos. Given its association with shallow reefs, it is estimated to have an area of occupancy of less than 2,000 km². Regional experts support the plausible threat of the increased duration and frequency of ENSO events that can cause severe and rapid declines for restricted-range, shallow-water species in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. This species is listed as Vulnerable under Criterion B and D2.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is considered abundant in the Galápagos, and moderately common in Mapelo and Cocos Islands. However, only juveniles were observed at Malpelo and Cocos, suggesting that the Galápagos may have the only viable self sustaining population. More research on the population status and distribution is required.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Guzmán and Cortés 1992, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g. the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica and the offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species' restricted distribution and shallow water habitat, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species.

Populations in Galápagos declined by more than 50% with the 1997/98 El Niño, but were able to rebound within one year.
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Vulnerable (VU) (B2ac(iv); D2)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures known for this species. However, this species is present in Marine Protected Areas in Galápagos, Malpelo and Cocos Islands (WDPA 2006). More research is needed to determine the population status and distribution of this species.
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Wikipedia

Stegastes beebei

Stegastes beebei (Galapagos ringtail damselfish or southern whitetail major), is a species of damselfish found on coral and rocky reefs at depths between 0 and 15 m. They are somewhat territorial, and chase away small intruders. They are omnivorous, grazing on algae and nibbling at small crustaceans and the tentacles of anemones. They are oviparous, with distinct pairing during breeding. The eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate. Males guard and aerate the eggs.[1]

Description[edit]

From:[2] The body is oval and compressed, with one pair of nostrils. The margin of the preopercle is serrated; the margin of bone under the eyes is serrated, without a notch in it and the bone before it. The mouth is small and protrusible with teeth in a single row, long and close-set. About 11 (10-12) lower gill rakers are present. They have a single continuous dorsal fin, and no projecting short spines at upper and lower base of tail fin. The caudal fin is bluntly forked. The scales are moderately large and rough; the body is scaled, and the head is largely scaled (the snout is scaled to the nostrils), as are the basal parts of the median fins. The lateral line has 20 scales (rarely 19). It is incomplete and ends under the end of the dorsal fin base. They grow up to 17 cm in length.

Galapagos ringtail damselfish are dark brown with darker scale outlines, often with a white band on the caudal peduncle. They have blue irises and white or yellow outer edges of the pectoral fin. Juveniles are dark with a red nape, upper back and spiny dorsal fin, and a dark ocellus at the rear base of the dorsal fin.

Distribution[edit]

They are found in the eastern Pacific off Panama, Malpelo Island (Colombia), Cocos Island (Panama), and the Galápagos Islands.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Galápagos Ringtail Damselfish". 
  2. ^ "Galápagos Ringtail Damselfish @eol.org". 
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Stegastes beebei" in FishBase. July 2013 version.
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