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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occur in inshore coastal waters, commonly in embayments on silty bottoms (Ref. 9679). Juveniles have been known to burrow in the sand (Ref. 6208). Oviparous (Ref. 205), multiple spawner (Ref. 56320). Small local fisheries exist throughout the range of the species. The flesh is prone to spoil rapidly and the Oriental sillago is not considered as highly as the inshore sillaginids (Ref. 6205). S. aeolus has not been found in association with S. burrus or S. maculata.
  • McKay, R.J. 1992 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Singapore, Thailand, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Philippines, and southern Japan. Possibly distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific from Delagoa Bay, South Africa to Okinawajima, Japan but not recorded from Australia or southern New Guinea. Very similar to Sillago burrus.
  • McKay, R.J. 1992 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
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Indo-West Pacific: South Africa (Delagoa Bay) and East Africa east to Philippines, north to southern Japan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 18 - 20; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 17 - 19; Vertebrae: 34
  • McKay, R.J. 1992 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm SL
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Max. size

30.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 6205))
  • McKay, R.J. 1992 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs in inshore coastal waters, commonly in embayments on silty bottoms (Ref. 9679. Juveniles have been known to burrow in the sand (Ref. 6208). Small local fisheries exist throughout the range of the species, particularly where bottom trawls are employed. The flesh is prone to spoil rapidly and the Oriental sillago is not considered as highly as the inshore sillaginids (Ref. 6205). @S. aeolus@ has not been found in association with @S. burrus@ or @S. maculata@.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Swim bladder with three rudimentary anterolateral extensions instead of four; differs from S. maculata in lacking well developed anterolateral extensions reaching to level of vent. Body color is silvery with scattered dark brown elongate blotches on the sides.
  • McKay, R.J. 1992 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; non-migratory; marine; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 6205)
  • McKay, R.J. 1992 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
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Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 32.9
  Temperature range (°C): 23.822 - 28.740
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.000 - 0.954
  Salinity (PPS): 32.182 - 34.202
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.223 - 4.847
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.128 - 0.441
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.202 - 15.721

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 32.9

Temperature range (°C): 23.822 - 28.740

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.000 - 0.954

Salinity (PPS): 32.182 - 34.202

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.223 - 4.847

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.128 - 0.441

Silicate (umol/l): 2.202 - 15.721
 
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Depth: 0 - 60m.
Recorded at 60 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Occurs in inshore coastal waters, commonly in embayments on silty bottoms (Ref. 9679. Juveniles have been known to burrow in the sand (Ref. 6208). Small local fisheries exist throughout the range of the species, particularly where bottom trawls are employed. The flesh is prone to spoil rapidly and the Oriental sillago is not considered as highly as the inshore sillaginids (Ref. 6205). @S. aeolus@ has not been found in association with @S. burrus@ or @S. maculata@.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sillago aeolus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sillago aeolus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
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Wikipedia

Oriental trumpeter whiting

The oriental trumpeter whiting, Sillago aeolus, is a widely distributed species of benthic inshore fish in the smelt-whiting family. The species ranges from east Africa to Japan, inhabiting much if the southern Asian and Indonesian coastlines. Its morphology is very similar to other species within the genus Sillago, with a long, compressed body and silvery overall colour. It can be distinguished from its relatives by colour patterns and particularly swim bladder morphology, which helps define most species of Sillago. S aeolus is a benthic predator, consuming a variety of crustaceans and polychaetes. As with most members of the smelt whiting family, it is important to small coastal fisheries in various areas of its range.

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

The oriental trumpeter whiting is one of 29 species in the genus Sillago, which is one of three divisions of the smelt whiting family Sillaginidae. The smelt-whitings are Perciformes in the suborder Percoidei.[1][2]

The oriental trumpeter whiting was first officially identified and named Sillago aeolus by Jordan and Evermann in 1902 from the holotype collected in Taiwan,[3] after a number of taxonomists had misidentified the species as Sillago macrolepis (Bleeker) or Sillago maculata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824). S. aeolus has a number of common names in different countries, with the most common, oriental trumpeter whiting derived from the fact the species has a similar colour and pattern to the Trumpeter whiting, Sillago maculata. Other names commonly applied to S. aeolus include Hoshi-gisu (Japan), Ebi (Malaysia), Oso-so (Philippines) and 'Asuhos'.[4]

Description[edit]

As with most of the genus Sillago, the oriental trumpeter whiting has a slightly compressed, elongate body tapering toward the terminal mouth, reaching a maximum overall length of 30 cm.[1] The body is covered in small ctenoid scales extending to the cheek and head. The first dorsal fin has 11 spines and the second dorsal fin has 1 leading spine with 18 to 20 soft rays posterior. The anal fin is similar to the second dorsal fin, but has 2 spines with 17 to 19 (usually 18) soft rays posterior to the spines. Other distinguishing features include 67 to 72 lateral line scales and a total of 34 vertebrae.[4]

Swim bladder morphology is the most effective way to distinguish it between related species S. maculata and S. burrus. The swim bladder has three anterolateral extensions; not four and it differs from S. maculata in lacking well developed anterolateral extensions reaching to the level of the vent.[1]

The colour of the oriental trumpeter whiting is similar to both S. burrus and S. maculata, having blotches that are like oblique bars, but the most posterior mid-lateral dark brown blotch is elongate and reaches caudal flexure. The blotches are not connected as in S. maculata. The belly is silvery to grey coloured.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The oriental trumpeter whiting has a wide distribution, inhabiting many areas of the Indo-Pacific region. The western most sighting of the species was in Delagoa Bay, South Africa, with its range extending up the east African coast and to the West Indies, but it has never been recorded near the Indian mainland. The species is most prolific in the South East Asian region, with positive identifications from Singapore, Hong Kong, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan[5] and up to Japan. S. aeolus has also never been recorded in New Guinea or Australia.[4]

The habitat of the oriental trumpeter whiting is largely unknown, but it's known to live in inshore coastal waters, commonly in embayments on silty bottoms in water depths from 0 - 60m depth.[6] Juveniles often enter the surf zone of beaches, mixing with juveniles from other species of Sillago.[7]

Biology[edit]

The diet of S. aeolus changes as the fish progresses from a juvenile to an adult. Juveniles primarily eat small zooplankton, such as calanoid copepods while adults tend to consume larger benthic prey, such as polychaetes, shrimps, and crabs. Examination of the gut of adults has shown the latter three items were the most important prey, together constituting more than 70% of stomach contents by volume. There does not appear to be any seasonal shift in diet in either juveniles or adults of the species.[8]

Oriental trumpeter whiting are reproductively mature at around 130mm in 50% of fish, with the minimum a length of 113mm in males and 109mm in females. They are multiple spawners, that spawn continuously throughout the year with peaks in reproduction that appear to vary geographically. Studies in Thailand indicate the peak is between July and December,[9] while studies in Japan show a peak in February to May.[10] Otolith studies show both females and males attained 60% and 91% of individuals at maturity respectively at the end of their first year of life. The attainment of large size by the end of the first year of life is of considerable advantage, since many individuals do not survive until the end of their second year.[11]

Relationship to humans[edit]

Throughout the oriental trumpeter whiting's range, it is often caught in trawls and is of minor importance to local fisheries. The flesh spoils easily and is not as highly rated as other sillaginids.[4] It is a commercial fish in Southern Japan, where most of the fish are caught by gill net for local consumption. As opposed to most areas, the species is well known for its delicate texture in Japan.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2007). "Sillago aeolus" in FishBase. Jul 2007 version.
  2. ^ "Sillago aeolus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 5 May 2008. 
  3. ^ McKay, R.J. (1985). "A Revision of the Fishes of the Family Sillaginidae". Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 22 (1): 1–73. 
  4. ^ a b c d e McKay, R.J. (1992). FAO Species Catalogue: Vol. 14. Sillaginid Fishes Of The World (PDF). Rome: Food and Agricultural Organisation. pp. 19–20. ISBN 92-5-103123-1. 
  5. ^ Shao, K.T.; Shen, S.C. & Chen, L.W. (1996). "A newly recorded sandborer, Sillago (Sillaginopodys) chondropus Bleeker, with a synopsis of the fishes of the family Sillaginidae of Taiwan". Bulletin of the Institute of the Zoological Academy Sinica 25: 1341–8998. 
  6. ^ McKay, R.J.; in In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) (1999). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). Rome: FAO. pp. 2614–2629. 
  7. ^ Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hiroshi Kohno & Yasuhiko Taki (1996). "Juveniles of two sillaginids, Sillago aeolus and S. sihama, occurring in a surf zone in the Philippines". Ichthyological Research (Japan: Springer) 43 (4): 1341–8998. doi:10.1007/BF02347640. 
  8. ^ Tongnunui, Prasert; Sano, M. & Kurokura, H. (2005). "Feeding habits of two sillaginid fishes, Sillago sihama and S. aeolus, at Sikao Bay, Trang Province, Thailand". Mer 43 (1/2): 9–17. ISSN 0503-1540. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  9. ^ Tongnunui, Prasert; Sano, M. & Kurokura, H. (2006). "Reproductive biology of two sillaginid fishes, Sillago sihama and S. aeolus, in tropical coastal waters of Thailand". Mer 44 (1): 1–16. ISSN 0503-1540. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  10. ^ Rahman, M.H.; Tachihara, K. (2005). "Reproductive biology of Sillago aeolus in Okinawa Island, Japan". Fisheries Science (Blackwell Publishing) 71 (1): 122–132. doi:10.1111/j.1444-2906.2005.00939.x. 
  11. ^ a b Rahman, M.H.; Tachihara, K. (2005). "Age and Growth of Sillago aeolus in Okinawa Island, Japan". Journal of Oceanography (Springer Netherlands) 61 (3): 569–573. doi:10.1007/s10872-005-0065-8. 
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