Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found inshore in summer, but at least some moving into deeper water in winter. Adults are found in near surface waters (Ref. 38984), usually in shallow areas overlying continental shelf, in greatest abundance immediately adjacent to major estuaries (Ref. 4639). Juveniles are also generally pelagic, with smallest size groups farthest up river (Ref. 38986). Form large and very compact schools, both of juveniles and adults. Migrate north - south; also in and out of bays and inlets. Feed by filtering phytoplankton (diatoms (Ref. 5951)) and zooplankton (small crustaceans, annelid worms and detritus (Ref. 5951)). High water temperatures apparently limit breeding. Spawn probably all year; nursery areas in estuaries. Larvae are pelagic (Ref. 38985), probably spend about a month in waters over continental shelf (Ref. 38983), entering estuarine waters at about 10 mm and larger (Ref. 844). Marketed fresh, salted, canned or smoked. Mainly used for production of oil, fertilizer and fishmeal (Ref. 188). Parasites found are isopods, copepod, cestodes and trematodes (Ref. 37032).
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Distribution

Nova Scotia southward to Indian River, Florida
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Brevoortia tyrannus, commonly called the Atlantic Menhaden, can be found anywhere in the western Atlantic, Nova Scotia, Canada and southward to Indian River, Florida, USA. Menhaden are also common in all salinities of the Chesapeake Bay.

Biogeographic Regions: atlantic ocean (Native )

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Western Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada southward to Indian River, Florida, USA.
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
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Atlantic coast of America in tropical and subtropical latitudes, south to Brazil, straying northward to Chesapeake Bay.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Brevoortia tyrannus can be described as a silvery in color. However, the sides of it differ from the silver color and range closer to a brassy color. Menhadens have dark bluish green backs. They are usually characterized by a small, irregularly placed scales on their backs, above their anal fins. They are also characterized by a black spot that is usually behind their gill openings. Following this larger black spot are approximately six lines of smaller spots. They have inner and outer finrays and a pelvic fin with rounded hind margins.

Average mass: 1283 g.

Other Physical Features: bilateral symmetry

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Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 18 - 24; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 18 - 24
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Size

Maximum size: 500 mm TL
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Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 188))
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
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to 50.0 cm TL.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Diagnostic Description

Upper jaw with median notch. Pelvic fin with rounded hind margin, inner fin rays equal or nearly equal to outer fin rays when fin folded back. Pre-dorsal scales modified; scales on back, above base of anal fin and at base of tail much smaller and irregularly placed. A black spot behind gill opening, followed along flank by approximately 6 lines of smaller spots (Ref. 188). Silvery, with brassy sides and a dark bluish green back (Ref. 7251).
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Ecology

Habitat

nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Found to depths of 20 m. Move from enclosed, coastal waters to deeper waters in winter.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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For the most part menhadens can be found at a depth of up to -20m. This puts them in the palagic, brakish, marine area of the Atlantic Ocean. In this habitat predators of the menhadens consist of such aquatic animals as sharks, rays, and bony fish. Also, parasites like isopods, copepods, cestodes, and trematodes are found on the menhadens.

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

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Habitat Type: Marine

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Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; pH range: 1.0 - 36.0; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
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Depth range based on 786 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 222 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 190
  Temperature range (°C): 5.381 - 25.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 17.036
  Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.278
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.530 - 6.535
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 1.316
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 17.288

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 190

Temperature range (°C): 5.381 - 25.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 17.036

Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.278

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.530 - 6.535

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 1.316

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 17.288
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Pelagic; brackish; marine; pH range: 1.0-36.0. Depth range: to 20 m. Found inshore in summer, some fish move into deeper water in winter. Adults are found in near-surface waters, usually in shallow areas overlying continental shelf. In greatest abundance immediately adjacent to major estruaries. Juveniles are also generally pelagic, with smallest size groups farthest up-river. Form large and very compact schools, both of juveniles and adults. Migrate north/south; also in and out of bays and inlets.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Menhadens feed by filtering. They consume from the primary trophic levels, including phytoplankton and zooplankton. Their main food source also includes detritus(dead organic matter found in the water, usually settled on the bottom), plants/detritus and animals. Menhadens' food consumption is usually 31.40 times their body weight per year.

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Occurs inshore in summer, but at least some move into deeper water in winter (but perhaps not in south of range). Forms large and very compact schools, both of adults and juveniles. North /south migrations (spring and summer versus autumn) occur, as also short-term migrations in and out of bays and inlets depending on tides, season and weather. Adults are obligate filter-feeders, while larvae and prejuvenile fish (smaller than 4.0 cm TL) are particulate feeders (Ref. 46977). Preyed upon by sharks, cod, pollock, hakes, bluefish, tuna, swordfish, seabirds, whales and porpoises (Ref. 5951).
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Feed by filtering phyto- and zooplankton.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Associations

Known predators

Brevoortia tyrannus (Atlantic menhaden) is prey of:
Brevoortia tyrannus
Leiostomus xanthurus
Morone americana
Arius felis

Based on studies in:
USA: Maryland, Chesapeake Bay (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Baird D, Ulanowicz RE (1989) The seasonal dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 59:329–364
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Known prey organisms

Brevoortia tyrannus (Atlantic menhaden) preys on:
phytoplankton
Bacteria attached to sediment POM
Bacillariophyceae
microzooplankton
zooplankton
Ctenophora
Chrysaora quinquecirrha
Other suspension feeders
Mya arenaria
Crassostrea virginica
Polychaeta
Nereis
Macoma
Actinopterygii
Alosa pseudoharengus
Alosa chrysochloris
Brevoortia tyrannus
Alosa sapidissima
Micropogonius undulatus
Trinectes maculatus
Leiostomus xanthurus

Based on studies in:
USA: Maryland, Chesapeake Bay (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Baird D, Ulanowicz RE (1989) The seasonal dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 59:329–364
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feed on zooplankton and phytoplankton, especially diatoms and copepods
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Life Cycle

Breeding season apparently limited by high water temperatures (20.5°C monthly mean maximum). Spawning activity occurring almost every month in some part of the range (Ref. 2472, 39013, 844). Spawning temperature ranges from 4.4°C to 23.6°C, with peak activity at 15-18°C (Ref. 39014). Salinity ranges from 10 ppt (Ref. 39015) to usually greater than 25 ppt (Ref. 844). Fecundity observed is from 38,000 to 631,000 eggs per season (Ref. 39013).
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Reproduction

Spawning for menhadens occurs all year long. However, productive spawning has been noted to occur from March to May and again between September and October. Estuaries are usually the safest salt water havens within menhadens habitat so their nurseries occur there. Breeding can be limited by high water temperatures.

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Spawn year-round; nursery areas in estuaries. Larvae are pelagic, probably spend about a month in waters over continental shelf . Breeding season apparently limited by high water temperatures (20.5°C monthly mean maximum). Spawning activity occurring almost every month in some part of the range. Spawning temperature ranges from 4.4°C to 23.6°C, with peak activity at 15-18°C. Salinity ranges from 10 ppt to usually greater than 25 ppt . Fecundity observed is from 38,000 to 631,000 eggs per season.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Brevoortia tyrannus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Brevoortia tyrannus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Menhaden are not threatened in or around the United States. They do not appear in the IUCN red list, which means that their species is safe from extinction as of now. Examples of regulations and status of menhaden can be found at NOAA (1999).

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Menhadens by themselves are considered a harmless species. However, when large numbers of these fish come in contact with the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida, many health risks become readily exposed to humans. Pfiesteria changes into a toxic encysted stage when it inhibits the menhadens. This causes health risks ranging from epidermal problems to central nervous system problems.

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Menhadens are considered highly commercial fish for the United States. They are used in the production of such things as: oil, fertilizer and fishmeal. They can also be found marketed for consumption, either fresh, smoked, salted, or canned. This species was realized recently to have a very significant value as an alternative for whale oil. They are also used for lubricants and as fuel for lamps. Since these fish have begun to be used as an alternative oil, they are being used for making soaps and paints. Virginia, North Carolina and the Gulf are major ports for the menhaden. There are more menhaden brought onto US land each year than any other fish. Their input ranges from 300,000 to 400,000 metric tons per year.

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Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

Atlantic menhaden

The Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) is a silvery, highly compressed fish in the herring family, Clupeidae.[1]

Atlantic menhaden are found in coastal and estuarine waters from Nova Scotia to northern Florida. They are commonly found in all salinities of the Chesapeake Bay and Mid-Atlantic water. They swim in large schools that stratify by size and age along the coast. Younger and smaller fish are found in the Chesapeake Bay and southern coastline while older, larger fish are found along the northern coastline.[2]

General biology[edit]

Atlantic menhaden can reach a maximum size of approximately 15 inches. Distinguishing characteristics include a moderately compressed body, a black spot on their shoulder behind their gill openings with a silvery colored body.[2]

Diet[edit]

Atlantic menhaden are filter feeders, meaning that they collect food by filtering water through modifications of the branchial apparatus (gill arches and gill rakers). Atlantic menhaden’s diet depends on the size of their gill rakers, which change as menhaden age. When the rakers are smaller, which generally correspond to when they are under the age of 1, Atlantic menhaden feed primarily on phytoplankton. As they age and their gill rakers grow larger, menhaden shift their diet to primarily consume zooplankton.[3]

Life cycle[edit]

Atlantic menhaden can spawn year round in inshore waters off the Atlantic coast, with the highest spawning rates near North Carolina in the late fall. The eggs hatch in the open ocean and the larvae drift to sheltered estuaries via ocean currents. The young spend a year developing in these estuaries before returning to the open ocean. At this early stage, they are commonly known as "peanut bunker". Atlantic menhaden usually do not become sexually mature until the end of their second year, after which they reproduce until death. A young, sexually mature female can produce roughly 38,000 eggs, while a fully mature female can produce upwards of 362,000.[4]

Eggs are buoyant and hatch within 2 to 3 days depending on the temperature. The larvae will spend 1 to 3 months in waters over the continental shelf. The Chesapeake Bay is a popular nursery for juvenile menhaden. Larval fish will enter the Bay in late winter and early summer. The larval fish will move into lower salinity waters in estuarine tributaries while juvenile and immature fish remain in the Bay until the fall. Atlantic menhaden can live up to 10 to 12 years.[2]

Fisheries and management[edit]

Historical uses[edit]

Menhaden have historically been used as a fertilizer for crops. It is likely that menhaden is the fish that Squanto taught the Pilgrims to bury alongside freshly planted seeds as fertilizer. Other uses for menhaden include: feed for animals, bait for fish, oil for human consumption, oil for manufacturing purposes and oil as a fuel source.

In the early years of the United States, Atlantic menhaden were being harvested by thousand of ships of fishermen. The Atlantic coastline was lined with processing facilities to quickly transform the fish into a product of worth, typically oil but later fish meal became more popular. Tragedy of the commons set in and the menhaden population began to dwindle. Many of these small companies could not manage, which left only a handful of menhaden fishing companies to remain on the Atlantic coast.[5]

While many sources today claim that the menhaden is inedible, the fish were once consumed as sardines might be, or fried. Maine fisherman, for example, would eat fried pogies for breakfast. The fish that were not sold for bait would be sold to the poorer classes for food.

Commercial fishery[edit]

In the Atlantic, menhaden are targeted by two types of fisheries, a reduction fishery and a bait fishery.

The reduction fishery processes whole menhaden into fish meal, fish oil, and fish solubles while the bait fishery supplies fishermen with menhaden as bait for key commercial and recreational fisheries. Both menhaden fisheries use a process known as purse seine fishing, in which two fishing boats surround a single school of fish with a large net. Purse seining is one of the most efficient methods of fishing available, with one of the lowest levels of bycatch.[6] The UN Food and Agriculture Organization has cited the Atlantic and Gulf menhaden fisheries as having one of the lowest levels of bycatch in the world.[7] The reduction fishery is largely based in the Chesapeake Bay and nearby Atlantic waters, and its season runs annually starting in May through the fall.

The bait fishery operates throughout the Atlantic coastline, ranging from North Carolina to New England.[8] Cast nets are also used for bait catch in the recreational fishing sector.

The fishery’s sustainability has also been certified by independent organizations. Friend of the Sea, an international seafood sustainability certification program, has recognized both the Atlantic menhaden and Gulf menhaden fisheries as sustainable.[9] This is both due to the healthy status of the stock as well as the fishery’s low levels of bycatch, which it achieves with the use of purse seine nets.[10]

Management[edit]

Atlantic menhaden are managed by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC), an interstate compact formed under an agreement by the 15 Atlantic coast states. Like with other species, the ASMFC manages menhaden to prevent overfishing and to keep the stock from being overfished. There is a subtle but distinct difference between the two designations. Overfishing occurs when too many fish are being taken from the population of a fish stock. A stock is considered overfished when it is not able to produce enough new fish to maintain the population.

The ASMFC uses two biological measurements, or reference points, to measure the health of the menhaden stock. To determine if the stock is overfished, the ASMFC measures fecundity (FEC), the number of mature eggs in the menhaden population, which indicates the stock’s reproductive capability. To measure overfishing, the ASMFC monitors fish mortality (F), the measure of the amount of fish removed from the water. In 2010, the ASMFC’s stock assessment found that the stock’s mortality levels were high enough that overfishing was occurring, but its fecundity level indicated that it was not overfished.[11]

Because the ASMFC’s 2010 assessment concluded that Atlantic menhaden was experiencing overfishing, some environmental organizations began campaigning for the Commission to impose new harvest restrictions, and the ASMFC began the process of drafting new limits. This culminated in a 2012 amendment to the menhaden Fishery Management Plan that reduced the coastwide Atlantic menhaden harvest by 20 percent of the average landings from 2009-2011.[12]

The cuts followed a sustained campaign by environmental groups like the Pew Charitable Trusts and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation, as well as authors like Paul Greenberg, who called for a ban on fishing menhaden in US federal waters and the Chesapeake Bay. The decision was opposed by many working in the menhaden fishery, who considered the cuts unnecessary and economically harmful.

These regulations joined older restrictions, such as a harvest cap on the number of menhaden that can be caught in the Chesapeake Bay, that were implemented to address concerns of localized depletion. Despite these concerns, there is currently no evidence that localized depletion is occurring in the Chesapeake Bay.[13]

Critics have since evaluated several claims made about the status of menhaden during the development of the 2012 management measures. For example, claims about historic overfishing of menhaden made by the Pew Charitable Trusts were rated “mostly false” by the non-partisan fact-checking organization Politifact.[14]

Since that amendment went into effect in 2013, the ASMFC’s Menhaden Technical Committee reported that, based on the inconclusive 2012 update stock assessment, it was impossible to determine whether or not the stock was “overfished” (i.e., stock size below its threshold size) due to uncertainties regarding the assessment model.[15] The issue was clarified when the ASMFC’s 2014 peer-reviewed, full benchmark menhaden assessment was published in early 2015. The 2014 assessment indicates that the stock is not subject to overfishing and is not overfished,[16] and that it has not been since the 1990s.[17]

Environmental concerns in the Chesapeake Bay[edit]

Dead zone[edit]

While popularly cited as filter feeders that remove excess algae and nutrients from the water, evidence suggests that menhaden do not significantly impact water quality. Adult menhaden largely do not eat phytoplankton, whose excessive growth leads to dead zones, instead feeding mainly on zooplankton.[18] There is evidence that, because menhaden secrete nitrogen, that they may actually be a net contributor to phytoplankton growth.[19]

Separate, but related, to the issue of dead zones are fish kills, where large numbers of menhaden or other fish will turn up dead in a single area. According to the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, which investigates fish kills in the Chesapeake Bay, the causes of fish kills are varied, but often are related to environmental factors such as low amounts of oxygen in the water, algal blooms, and water temperatures that are either too hot or too cold. Other factors, such as the dumping hazardous materials or excess bycatch, can also contribute.[20]

Striped bass[edit]

Due to the change in striped bass population many have begun to cite the commercial harvesting of menhaden as the reasoning behind the shift. Several claims state that menhaden are a key staple in the striped bass diet. However, other studies see the striped bass as an opportunistic feeder with a variety of aquatic creatures that it consumes and therefore does not completely rely on the menhaden. In fact, menhaden has been represented as low as 8% of the striped bass diet.[21][22]

History of the names[edit]

  • Menhaden - comes from the Native American word munnawhatteaug which means "that which manures" (fertilizer). The Native Americans would use the menhaden to fertilize their crops.
  • American sardine - in the 1800s Americans would prepare and consume the menhaden like the European sardine.
  • Pogy- comes from the Native American word pauhagen or pookagan which holds the same meaning as Munnawhatteaug.
  • Bony-fish, hard-head- describes the structure of the fish.
  • White-fish- used to describe North American fresh-water fish.
  • Mossbunker- comes form the Dutch word Marsbanker that translates to horse mackerel, which is a similar looking fish found in the Netherlands. The Dutch colonists began reusing the name to describe the menhaden.
  • Bug-fish, bug-head - the name comes from the presence of a parasitic crustacean (Cymothoa pregustator) that is found in the mouth of the menhaden due to the fact that the menhaden swim with their mouth open.
  • Fat-back - used to describe the oily flesh found on the menhaden.
  • Yellow-tail, yellow-tailed shad, green-tail- used to describe the tint of the caudal fin.
  • Shad, alewife, and herring - terms representing the herring family have come to be used to describe the menhaden.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2005). "Brevoortia tyrannus" in FishBase. 10 2005 version.
  2. ^ a b c NOAA Fish Facts: Atlantic Menhaden
  3. ^ "Menhaden appear to have little net impact on Bay water quality." Virginia Institute of Marine Science.
  4. ^ "Atlantic Menhaden." South Atlantic Fishery Management Council.
  5. ^ ASMFC 2005
  6. ^ Friend of the Sea, "Omega Protein’s Purse Seine Menhaden fleet"
  7. ^ UN Food and Agriculture Organization, "A global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards," 1996.
  8. ^ NOAA, Chesapeake Bay Office, "Fish Facts: Menhaden"
  9. ^ Friend of the Sea, "Fisheries USA – Purse seine – Gulf menhaden, Atlantic menhaden – FAO Western Atlantic Ocean"
  10. ^ Friend of the Sea, "Omega Protein’s Purse Seine Menhaden Fleet."
  11. ^ Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, “2010 Atlantic Menhaden Stock Assessment,” 2010.
  12. ^ Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, “Amendment 2 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Menhaden,” December 2012
  13. ^ VIMS. Menhaden, “Frequently Asked Questions.”
  14. ^ Politifact Rhode Island, “Pew Environment Group says the Atlantic menhaden population declined by 90 percent in recent years,” The Providence Journal, December 14, 2012
  15. ^ Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, “2012 Atlantic Menhaden Stock Assessment Update,” July 2012
  16. ^ SEDAR. 2015. SEDAR 40–Atlantic MenhadenStock Assessment Report
  17. ^ See Figures 8.3.2.4 & 8.3.2.5, pages 192-193, SEDAR 40-1.3 Assessment Report Figures
  18. ^ Friedland, Kevin; Lynch, Patrick; Gobler, Christopher, “Time Series Mesoscale Response of Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus to Variation in Plankton Abundances,” Journal of Coastal Research, February 11, 2011
  19. ^ Ann and Edward Durbin, “Effects of Menhaden Predation on Plankton Populations in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island,” Estuaries, September 1998
  20. ^ Virginia Institute of Marine Science, “Fish Kill Events”
  21. ^ http://www.vims.edu/research/departments/fisheries/programs/multispecies_fisheries_research/data_products/chesmmap_reports/2009.pdf
  22. ^ http://www.fisheriessociety.org/mid-atlantic/Presentations_2010/08_Clark_Striped_bass_feeding_habits.pdf
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