Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found inshore in summer, but at least some moving into deeper water in winter. Adults are found in near surface waters (Ref. 38984), usually in shallow areas overlying continental shelf, in greatest abundance immediately adjacent to major estuaries (Ref. 4639). Juveniles are also generally pelagic, with smallest size groups farthest up river (Ref. 38986). Form large and very compact schools, both of juveniles and adults. Migrate north - south; also in and out of bays and inlets. Feed by filtering phytoplankton (diatoms (Ref. 5951)) and zooplankton (small crustaceans, annelid worms and detritus (Ref. 5951)). High water temperatures apparently limit breeding. Spawn probably all year; nursery areas in estuaries. Larvae are pelagic (Ref. 38985), probably spend about a month in waters over continental shelf (Ref. 38983), entering estuarine waters at about 10 mm and larger (Ref. 844). Marketed fresh, salted, canned or smoked. Mainly used for production of oil, fertilizer and fishmeal (Ref. 188). Parasites found are isopods, copepod, cestodes and trematodes (Ref. 37032).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Nova Scotia southward to Indian River, Florida
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Western Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada southward to Indian River, Florida, USA.
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Geographic Range

Brevoortia tyrannus, commonly called the Atlantic Menhaden, can be found anywhere in the western Atlantic, Nova Scotia, Canada and southward to Indian River, Florida, USA. Menhaden are also common in all salinities of the Chesapeake Bay.

Biogeographic Regions: atlantic ocean (Native )

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Atlantic coast of America in tropical and subtropical latitudes, south to Brazil, straying northward to Chesapeake Bay.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 18 - 24; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 18 - 24
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Physical Description

Brevoortia tyrannus can be described as a silvery in color. However, the sides of it differ from the silver color and range closer to a brassy color. Menhadens have dark bluish green backs. They are usually characterized by a small, irregularly placed scales on their backs, above their anal fins. They are also characterized by a black spot that is usually behind their gill openings. Following this larger black spot are approximately six lines of smaller spots. They have inner and outer finrays and a pelvic fin with rounded hind margins.

Average mass: 1283 g.

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Size

Maximum size: 500 mm TL
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Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 188))
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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to 50.0 cm TL.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Diagnostic Description

Upper jaw with median notch. Pelvic fin with rounded hind margin, inner fin rays equal or nearly equal to outer fin rays when fin folded back. Pre-dorsal scales modified; scales on back, above base of anal fin and at base of tail much smaller and irregularly placed. A black spot behind gill opening, followed along flank by approximately 6 lines of smaller spots (Ref. 188). Silvery, with brassy sides and a dark bluish green back (Ref. 7251).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Found to depths of 20 m. Move from enclosed, coastal waters to deeper waters in winter.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; pH range: 1.0 - 36.0; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188)
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For the most part menhadens can be found at a depth of up to -20m. This puts them in the palagic, brakish, marine area of the Atlantic Ocean. In this habitat predators of the menhadens consist of such aquatic animals as sharks, rays, and bony fish. Also, parasites like isopods, copepods, cestodes, and trematodes are found on the menhadens.

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

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Depth range based on 786 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 222 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 190
  Temperature range (°C): 5.381 - 25.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 17.036
  Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.278
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.530 - 6.535
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 1.316
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 17.288

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 190

Temperature range (°C): 5.381 - 25.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 17.036

Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.278

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.530 - 6.535

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 1.316

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 17.288
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Pelagic; brackish; marine; pH range: 1.0-36.0. Depth range: to 20 m. Found inshore in summer, some fish move into deeper water in winter. Adults are found in near-surface waters, usually in shallow areas overlying continental shelf. In greatest abundance immediately adjacent to major estruaries. Juveniles are also generally pelagic, with smallest size groups farthest up-river. Form large and very compact schools, both of juveniles and adults. Migrate north/south; also in and out of bays and inlets.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs inshore in summer, but at least some move into deeper water in winter (but perhaps not in south of range). Forms large and very compact schools, both of adults and juveniles. North /south migrations (spring and summer versus autumn) occur, as also short-term migrations in and out of bays and inlets depending on tides, season and weather. Adults are obligate filter-feeders, while larvae and prejuvenile fish (smaller than 4.0 cm TL) are particulate feeders (Ref. 46977). Preyed upon by sharks, cod, pollock, hakes, bluefish, tuna, swordfish, seabirds, whales and porpoises (Ref. 5951).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Food Habits

Menhadens feed by filtering. They consume from the primary trophic levels, including phytoplankton and zooplankton. Their main food source also includes detritus(dead organic matter found in the water, usually settled on the bottom), plants/detritus and animals. Menhadens' food consumption is usually 31.40 times their body weight per year.

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Feed by filtering phyto- and zooplankton.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Associations

Known predators

Brevoortia tyrannus (Atlantic menhaden) is prey of:
Brevoortia tyrannus
Leiostomus xanthurus
Morone americana
Arius felis

Based on studies in:
USA: Maryland, Chesapeake Bay (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Baird D, Ulanowicz RE (1989) The seasonal dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 59:329–364
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Known prey organisms

Brevoortia tyrannus (Atlantic menhaden) preys on:
phytoplankton
Bacteria attached to sediment POM
Bacillariophyceae
microzooplankton
zooplankton
Ctenophora
Chrysaora quinquecirrha
Other suspension feeders
Mya arenaria
Crassostrea virginica
Polychaeta
Nereis
Macoma
Actinopterygii
Alosa pseudoharengus
Alosa chrysochloris
Brevoortia tyrannus
Alosa sapidissima
Micropogonius undulatus
Trinectes maculatus
Leiostomus xanthurus

Based on studies in:
USA: Maryland, Chesapeake Bay (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Baird D, Ulanowicz RE (1989) The seasonal dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 59:329–364
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feed on zooplankton and phytoplankton, especially diatoms and copepods
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Life Cycle

Breeding season apparently limited by high water temperatures (20.5°C monthly mean maximum). Spawning activity occurring almost every month in some part of the range (Ref. 2472, 39013, 844). Spawning temperature ranges from 4.4°C to 23.6°C, with peak activity at 15-18°C (Ref. 39014). Salinity ranges from 10 ppt (Ref. 39015) to usually greater than 25 ppt (Ref. 844). Fecundity observed is from 38,000 to 631,000 eggs per season (Ref. 39013).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Reproduction

Spawning for menhadens occurs all year long. However, productive spawning has been noted to occur from March to May and again between September and October. Estuaries are usually the safest salt water havens within menhadens habitat so their nurseries occur there. Breeding can be limited by high water temperatures.

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Spawn year-round; nursery areas in estuaries. Larvae are pelagic, probably spend about a month in waters over continental shelf . Breeding season apparently limited by high water temperatures (20.5°C monthly mean maximum). Spawning activity occurring almost every month in some part of the range. Spawning temperature ranges from 4.4°C to 23.6°C, with peak activity at 15-18°C. Salinity ranges from 10 ppt to usually greater than 25 ppt . Fecundity observed is from 38,000 to 631,000 eggs per season.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Jones, P. W., F. D. Martin and J. D. Hardy, Jr., 1978; McKenney, T. W., 1969; June, F. C., 1961; Massman, W. H., J. J. Norcross and E. B. Joseph, 1962; June, F. C. and L. Chamberlain, 1959; Higham, Jr. and W. R. Nicholson, 1964; Dahlberg, M. D., 1970; Dovel, W. L., 1971; Reintjes, J. W., 1969; Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, 1927.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Brevoortia tyrannus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Brevoortia tyrannus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Menhaden are not threatened in or around the United States. They do not appear in the IUCN red list, which means that their species is safe from extinction as of now. Examples of regulations and status of menhaden can be found at NOAA (1999).

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Menhadens by themselves are considered a harmless species. However, when large numbers of these fish come in contact with the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida, many health risks become readily exposed to humans. Pfiesteria changes into a toxic encysted stage when it inhibits the menhadens. This causes health risks ranging from epidermal problems to central nervous system problems.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Menhadens are considered highly commercial fish for the United States. They are used in the production of such things as: oil, fertilizer and fishmeal. They can also be found marketed for consumption, either fresh, smoked, salted, or canned. This species was realized recently to have a very significant value as an alternative for whale oil. They are also used for lubricants and as fuel for lamps. Since these fish have begun to be used as an alternative oil, they are being used for making soaps and paints. Virginia, North Carolina and the Gulf are major ports for the menhaden. There are more menhaden brought onto US land each year than any other fish. Their input ranges from 300,000 to 400,000 metric tons per year.

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Wikipedia

Atlantic menhaden

The Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) <bunker>is a silvery, highly compressed fish in the herring family, Clupeidae.[1][2] A filter feeder, it lives on plankton caught in midwater. Adult fish can filter up to four gallons of water a minute; and they play an important role in clarifying ocean water. They are also a natural check to the deadly red tide.[3]

Menhaden have historically been used as a fertilizer for crops. It is likely that menhaden is the fish that Squanto taught the Pilgrims to bury alongside freshly planted seeds as fertilizer. Other uses for menhaden include: feed for animals, bait for fish, oil for human consumption, oil for manufacturing purposes and oil as a fuel source.

While many sources today claim that the menhaden is inedible, the fish were once consumed as sardines might be, or fried. Maine fisherman, for example, would eat fried pogies for breakfast. The fish that were not sold for bait would be sold to the poorer classes for food.

Menhaden historically occurred in large numbers in the North Atlantic, ranging from Nova Scotia, Canada to central Florida, USA, although their presence in northern waters has diminished in the 20th Century. They swim in large schools, some reportedly up to 40 miles (64 km) long. As a result of their abundance they are important prey for a wide range of predators including bluefish, striped bass, cod, haddock, halibut, mackerel, swordfish, and tuna.[3]

History of the Names[edit]

  • Menhaden- comes from the Native American word Munnawhatteaug which means "that which manures" (fertilizer). The Native Americans would use the menhaden to fertilize their crops.
  • American Sardine- in the 1800s Americans would prepare and consume the menhaden like the European sardine.
  • Pogy- comes from the Native American word Pauhagen or Pookagan which holds the same meaning as Munnawhatteaug.
  • Bony-fish, Hard-head- describes the structure of the fish.
  • White-fish- used to describe North American fresh-water fish.
  • Mossbunker- comes form the Dutch word Marsbanker that translates to horse mackerel, which is a similar looking fish found in the Netherlands. The Dutch colonists began reusing the name to describe the menhaden.
  • Bug-fish, Bug-head- the name comes from the presence of a parasitic crustacean (Cymothoa pregustator) that is found in the mouth of the menhaden due to the fact that the menhaden swim with their mouth open.
  • Fat-back- used to describe the oily flesh found on the menhaden.
  • Yellow-tail, Yellow-tailed shad, Green-tail- used to describe the tint of the caudal fin.
  • Shad, Alewife, and Herring- terms representing the herring family have come to be used to describe the menhaden.

Commercial fishing[edit]

The Atlantic menhaden is popular for use as live or dead bait. The fish is notorious for its rapid deterioration when caught, as well as its bony and oily makeup. As a result, they are primarily used for the production of fish meal, oil and fertilizer. It went on to be used for this purpose on a large scale on farmland on the Atlantic coast, though this process was stopped after it was realized that the oily fish parched the soil.[3][4]

In the early years of the United States, Atlantic menhaden were being harvested by thousand of ships of fishermen. The Atlantic coastline was lined with processing facilities to quickly transform the fish into a product of worth, typically oil but later fish meal became more popular. Tragedy of the commons set in and the menhaden population began to dwindle. Many of these small companies could not manage, which left only a handful of menhaden fishing companies to remain on the Atlantic coast. In recent years the menhaden population is considered to be sustainable coastwide, though a possibility for a localized depletion exists in the Chesapeake Bay due to a concentrated harvest.[5]

As of today, Omega Protein, a Houston, Texas-based company, has a virtual monopoly on the menhaden reduction industry in the United States.[6] The company uses a process known as purse-seining to corral and remove from the water entire schools of menhaden, often numbering in the hundreds of thousands.[6] Omega Protein operates mainly in Virginia and North Carolina due to the outlawing of purse-seining in all other Atlantic coast states.

Due to concerns the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission in 2006 put a harvesting cap of 109,020 metric tons on the reduction fishery in the Chesapeake Bay for the next five years. Omega Protein has continued to abide by the harvesting cap and even elected to extend the cap for following two years. A 2010 study by the economic James Kirkley at the Virginia Institute of Marine Resources found that the reduction industry has an $88 million economic impact on the Chesapeake Bay region, supplying 300 jobs at Omega Protein, and 219 jobs in industries supported by the reduction fishery. But those figures pale in comparison to recreational fishing activities, which have a $332 million economic impact in Virginia and Maryland, and supports 3,500 jobs in those two states alone.


Dead Zone[edit]

  • Tremendous algal blooms that starve the bay of sunlight and oxygen have been attributed to a diminished menhaden population due to the menhaden's important role as a filter feeder of algae and other phytoplankton. Significant malnutrition and disease in one of its primary predators, the striped bass, is also widespread in the Chesapeake.[6]
  • Virginia Institute of Marine Science published an article which states that menhaden have "little net impact on Bay water quality" (David Malmquist).[7]

Striped Bass[edit]

  • Due to the change in striped bass population many have begun to cite the commercial harvesting of menhaden as the reasoning behind the shift. Several claims state that menhaden are a key staple in the striped bass diet.
  • However, other studies that have been conducted see the striped bass as an opportunistic feeder with a variety of aquatic creatures that it consumes and therefore does not completely rely on the menhaden. In fact, menhaden has been represented as low as 8% of the striped bass diet.[8][9]

Management[edit]

Atlantic menhaden are managed by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC), which is an interstate agreement by the 15 Atlantic coast states. Within the organization exists an Interstate Fishery Management Plan that is designed to regulate the harvest.

ASMFC uses two biological reference points to measure the stock. To determine if the stock is overfished, the ASMFC uses a population fecundity (FEC) reference point. This measurement focuses on the number of mature eggs in the menhaden population to determine reproductive capability.

According to the ASMFC's 2010 stock assessment, menhaden are not overfished because the number of mature eggs was 99%of the target FEC and 198% of the threshold FEC.

Another measurement used by the ASMFC is a fishing mortality (F) target and threshold. The target F is set at 0.96 and the threshold F is set at 2.2. This measurement focuses on the highest amount of pressure that the menhaden stock can withstand. If fishing occurs beyond the target or threshold, management has the authority to intervene.

According to the ASMFC's 2010 stock assessment, overfishing of menhaden did occur in 2008 due to the F threshold reaching 2.28. The toe over the line in 2008 had ruined a 9 year streak (1999-2007) of no overfishing.

Capt.Paul Eidman, Menhaden Defenders.org- reports that a historic event occurred in the management of this fishery December 14, 2012 when the ASMFC Approved Atlantic Menhaden Amendment 2- The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission has approved Amendment 2 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Menhaden. The Amendment establishes a 170,800 MT total allowable catch (TAC) beginning in 2013 and continuing until completion of, and Board action on, the next benchmark stock assessment, scheduled for 2014. The TAC represents a 20% reduction from the average of landings from 2009-2011 and an approximately 25% reduction from 2011 levels. The Board also adopted new biological reference points for biomass based on maximum spawning potential (MSP), with the goal of increasing abundance, spawning stock biomass, and menhaden availability as a forage species. “Through the selection of the MSP-based reference points, beginning with adoption of Addendum V in 2011 and continuing today, the Board has made a conscious decision to address the ecosystem services provided by Atlantic menhaden,” stated Board Chair Louis Daniel of North Carolina. “Given the stock is experiencing overfishing and is most likely overfished based on the newly adopted reference points, it was incumbent upon the Board to reduce landings in order to ensure the long-term sustainability of the resource and the fisheries that depend on it.” The Amendment allocates the TAC on a state-by-state basis based on landings history of the fishery from 2009-2011; allocation will be revisited three years after implementation. Further, it reduces the Chesapeake Bay reduction fishery harvest cap by 20% (this is an adjustment of cap which was in place since 2006). States will be required to close their fisheries when the state-specific portion of the TAC has been reached; any overages must be paid back the following year. The Amendment includes provisions to allow for the transfer of quota between states and a bycatch allowance of 6,000 pounds for nondirected fisheries that are operating after a state TAC has been landed. The Amendment also establishes requirements for timely reporting and improved biological monitoring.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Brevoortia tyrannus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 30 January 2006. 
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2005). "Brevoortia tyrannus" in FishBase. 10 2005 version.
  3. ^ a b c H. Bruce Franklin (March 2006). "Net Losses: Declaring War on the Menhaden". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on 18 March 2006. Retrieved 21 February 2006.  Extensive article on the role of menhaden in the ecosystem and possible results of overfishing.
  4. ^ George Brown Goode (1887). The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States. Section V. History and Methods of the Fisheries. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 
  5. ^ ASMFC 2005
  6. ^ a b c H. Bruce Franklin (2007) The Most Important Fish in the Sea: Menhaden and America Island Press. ISBN 978-1-59726-124-1
  7. ^ http://www.vims.edu/newsandevents/topstories/menhaden_water_quality.php
  8. ^ http://www.vims.edu/research/departments/fisheries/programs/multispecies_fisheries_research/data_products/chesmmap_reports/2009.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.fisheriessociety.org/mid-atlantic/Presentations_2010/08_Clark_Striped_bass_feeding_habits.pdf
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