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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits sandy or low-relief rocky bottoms (Ref. 11228). Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775). May be solitary or in small groups, on flat offshore trawling grounds, occasionally near shallow coral reefs (Ref. 90102).
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: east Africa and Seychelles to the Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia.
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Additions and corrections for the 1995 impression. p. v-xv. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Revised Edition of Smiths' Sea Fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 11228)
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Indo-West Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 10
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Size

Maximum size: 350 mm TL
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Max. size

35.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295))
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Diagnostic Description

Description: Lower edge of eye is intersected by line from snout tip to the middle of the caudal fin fork. Eye diameter usually about equal to the length of the snout. The interorbital space is convex and about equal to eye diameter. The inner surface of the pectoral fin axil is scaleless. Overall color is silver, sometimes slightly brown dorsally, with about eight transverse brown bars on the sides, the first crossing through the eye, the remainder below the dorsal fin and across the caudal peduncle. Scattered blotches and speckling is sometimes evident on sides. Fins are clear to yellow-orange with caudal margins and tips often deep red (Ref. 2295). Body depth 2.2-2.4 in SL (Ref. 90102).
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Description

Inhabits trawling grounds of the continental shelf. Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; non-migratory; marine; depth range 50 - 100 m (Ref. 2295)
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Depth range based on 358 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 240 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5 - 114
  Temperature range (°C): 21.088 - 27.844
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.019 - 9.015
  Salinity (PPS): 34.534 - 35.245
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.284 - 4.701
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.152 - 0.760
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.897 - 11.713

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5 - 114

Temperature range (°C): 21.088 - 27.844

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.019 - 9.015

Salinity (PPS): 34.534 - 35.245

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.284 - 4.701

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.152 - 0.760

Silicate (umol/l): 0.897 - 11.713
 
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Depth: 50 - 100m.
From 50 to 100 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Inhabits sandy or low-relief rocky bottoms (Ref. 11228). Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775).
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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental shelf (Ref. 75154). In sandy areas and rocky reefs (Ref. 9137).
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Gymnocranius elongatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTCTATTTAGTATTCGGTGCATGAGCTGGAATAGTCGGCACTGCTCTGAGCCTCCTTATCCGAGCGGAGCTTAGTCAACCTGGGGCTCTCCTGGGAGACGACCAGATTTACAATGTAATCGTTACAGCACACGCCTTCGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATCGGAGGCTTTGGAAATTGACTTATTCCACTAATGATCGGAGCCCCCGATATGGCATTCCCTCGAATGAATAATATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTTCCCCCTTCCTTCCTCCTTCTCCTAGCCTCCTCAGGTATTGAAGCCGGAGCAGGAACCGGATGAACAGTCTACCCCCCACTAGCCGGCAACCTTGCCCACGCTGGAGCATCCGTTGACCTAACCATCTTCTCTCTCCACCTAGCTGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTGGGTGCTATTAACTTTATTACAACCATCATCAACATGAAACCACCTGCTATCTCTCAATACCAGACCCCCCTCTTCGTCTGAGCAGTCCTAATCACTGCTGTCCTCCTTCTCCTCTCACTCCCAGTCTTGGCAGCAGGCATCACAATACTCCTTACGGACCGAAACTTAAATACAACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCGGGCGGAGGAGATCCAATTCTCTACCAACACCTGTTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gymnocranius elongatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: high; price reliability: questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this genus
  • Carpenter, K.E. 1997 Lethrinidae. Emperor snappers. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Western Central Pacific. (Ref. 9775)
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