- Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
- Masuda, H., C. Araga and T. Yoshino 1975 Coastal fishes of southern Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 382 p. (Ref. 637)
Habitat and Ecology
- Sommer, C., W. Schneider and J.-M. Poutiers 1996 FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Somalia. FAO, Rome. 376 p. (Ref. 30573)
Recorded at 200 meters.
Life History and Behavior
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Habitat requirements are not well understood, but inshore areas are important as nursery areas for Rhinobatos species and these are being impacted upon by fishing activities and environmental degradation/pollution.
Historical fishing pressure is generally intensive in the northwest Pacific (NOAA 2004ab). However, increases in fuel prices have reportedly led to some decrease in fishing activities in recent years off Japan (H. Ishihara pers. obs. 2007).
There is a need to acquire accurate catch data from fisheries throughout the species' distribution. Better understanding of habitat requirements and critical area/habitats is required to establish best amelioration processes.
Future management will need to consider harvest and trade management with a focus on resource stewardship and livelihood alternatives.
The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g. under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and management of all elasmobranch species. See Anon. (2004) for an update of progress made towards development and implementation of National Plans of Action for countries across the range of
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems