Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

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Specimen Records: 619
Specimens with Sequences: 612
Specimens with Barcodes: 413
Species: 54
Species With Barcodes: 52
Public Records: 474
Public Species: 42
Public BINs: 33
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Wikipedia

Ceratosolen

Ceratosolen is an Old World wasp genus in the family Agaonidae (fig wasps) which pollinate the monoecious[1] fig subgenus Sycomorus.[2]

Biology[edit]

Adults enter through the fig ostiole, a narrow, bract-lined passage, then pollinate and attempt to oviposit on the flowers.[3] Flower ovules that receive an egg become galled and the larvae consume the gall tissue. Pollinated flowers missed by the wasps produce one seed each. The adult offspring emerge from the gall and mate in the fig, before the winged female wasps disperse, carrying the flower pollen with them.[3]

Associations[edit]

Several non-pollinating wasps species of the Chalcidoidea exploit the mutualism.[3] Sycophaga sycomori oviposits inside the short-style flowers, thereby stimulating the growth of endosperm tissue and the enlargement and ripening of the syconium which holds the wasp-bearing drupelets, without pollination taking place.[4] The parasitic species Apocrypta guineensis and Sycoscapter niger use long ovipositors to pierce the fig wall to infect the larvae during their development inside the flower galls,[5] and consequently reduce pollinator production.[3]

Species[edit]

There are more than 60 described species including:[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Weiblen, George D. (September 2000). "Phylogenetic relationships of functionally dioecious FICUS (Moraceae) based on ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology". American Journal of Botany 87 (9): 1342–1357. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Van Noort, et al. "Ceratosolen Mayr". Figweb. iziko museums. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d Harrison, Rhett D., et al (5 June 2012). "Evolution of Fruit Traits in Ficus Subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae): To What Extent Do Frugivores Determine Seed Dispersal Mode?". Plos One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038432. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  4. ^ Armstrong, W.P. "Gall flowers in figs: Does The Fig Wasp Really Produce A Gall?". Wayne's Word. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  5. ^ Van Noort, Simon; Van Harten, Antonius (2006-12-18). "The species richness of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae) in Yemen". Fauna of Arabia (22): 449–472. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 
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