Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:616
Specimens with Barcodes:417
Species With Barcodes:52
Adults enter through the fig ostiole, a narrow, bract-lined passage, then pollinate and attempt to oviposit on the flowers. Flower ovules that receive an egg become galled and the larvae consume the gall tissue. Pollinated flowers missed by the wasps produce one seed each. The adult offspring emerge from the gall and mate in the fig, before the winged female wasps disperse, carrying the flower pollen with them.
Several non-pollinating wasp species of the Chalcidoidea exploit the mutualism. Sycophaga sycomori oviposits inside the short-style flowers, thereby stimulating the growth of endosperm tissue and the enlargement and ripening of the syconium which holds the wasp-bearing drupelets, without pollination taking place. The parasitic species Apocrypta guineensis and Sycoscapter niger use long ovipositors to pierce the fig wall to infect the larvae during their development inside the flower galls, and consequently reduce pollinator production.
There are more than 60 described species, including:
- Ceratosolen abnormis Wiebes, 1963
- Ceratosolen acutatus Mayr, 1906
- Ceratosolen adenospermae Wiebes, 1965
- Ceratosolen albulus Wiebes, 1963
- Ceratosolen appendiculatus (Mayr, 1885)
- Ceratosolen arabicus Mayr, 1906
- Ceratosolen armipes Wiebes, 1963
- Ceratosolen bakeri Grandi, 1927
- Ceratosolen bianchii Wiebes, 1963
- Ceratosolen bimerus Wiebes, 1965
- Ceratosolen solmsi (Mayr, 1885)
- Ceratosolen solomensis Wiebes, 1994
- Ceratosolen sordidus Wiebes, 1963
- Ceratosolen stupefactus Wiebes, 1989
- Ceratosolen vechti Wiebes, 1963
- Ceratosolen vetustus Wiebes, 1994
- Ceratosolen vissali Wiebes, 1981
- Ceratosolen wui Chen & Chou, 1997
- Weiblen, George D. (September 2000). "Phylogenetic relationships of functionally dioecious FICUS (Moraceae) based on ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology". American Journal of Botany 87 (9): 1342–1357. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Van Noort et al. "Ceratosolen Mayr". Figweb. iziko museums. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Harrison, Rhett D. et al. (5 June 2012). "Evolution of Fruit Traits in Ficus Subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae): To What Extent Do Frugivores Determine Seed Dispersal Mode?". Plos One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038432. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Armstrong, W.P. "Gall flowers in figs: Does The Fig Wasp Really Produce A Gall?". Wayne's Word. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Van Noort, Simon; Van Harten, Antonius (2006-12-18). "The species richness of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae) in Yemen". Fauna of Arabia (22): 449–472. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
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