Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: cabrilla (English), grouper (English), cabrilla (Espanol), mero (Espanol)
 
Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns, 1840)


Flag cabrilla,     Starry grouper



Body robust, compressed; end of top jaw exposed; operculum edge with 3 flat spines; preoperculum without spines; 23-26 gill rakers; dorsal fin, XI, 16-18, 3rd  or 4th  spine longest, longer than rays anal fin with III, 8 anal rays; pectoral rays 18-20, usually 19, rarely 18; tail rounded; lateral line complete, ending at tail base, smoothly arched; scales rough, relatively small: 48-51 lateral line scales, 34-40 around tail base, and 11-12 above the lateral line; no small imbedded scales on front of maxillary bone.



Olive green with scattered irregular white spots and blotches; a black saddle on upper part of tail base; outer margins of dorsal and anal fins, upper and lower margins of tail fin and outer half of pectoral fin brick red.

Size: to about 60 cm.

Inhabits rocky and coral reefs.

Depth: 1-50 m.

San Diego, California to the Gulf of California to Peru, the Galapagos, Cocos, the Revillagigedos and Malpelo.
   
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Biology

Adults are most abundant in shallow water and also occurs to a depth of at least 30 m. Inhabits rocky area of coastal waters within continental shelf (Ref. 11035). A solitary predator that seems to feed on smaller fishes by day and crustaceans after dark. Spawning occurs in late summer (Ref. 5592).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

Epinephelus labriformis is an eastern Pacific species that occurs from Baja California (Mexico) to Peru, including the offshore islands of Cocos, Revillagigedo, and the Galápagos Islands. The range for this species has recently been extended northward to San Diego, California (USA) based on a previously overlooked museum specimen (Craig et al. 2006). Other anecdotal records also indicate that this species sparsely populates the Pacific coast of Baja California. It is present in the northern Gulf of California, reaching higher densities in the south.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Peru, including the offshore islands of Cocos, Revillagigedo, and the Galapagos Islands.
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12 External link.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 50 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 18; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12 External link.
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Size

Length max (cm): 60.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 600 mm TL
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Max. size

60.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 11035))
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Type Information

Type for Epinephelus sellicauda
Catalog Number: USNM 7247
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: Lower California, Cape San Lucas., Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
General
Epinephelus labriformis is a demersal species that inhabits rocky reefs to at least 30 m. Adults are most abundant in shallow water and also occurs to a depth of at least 30 m.

Feeding
Epinephelus labriformis is a solitary predator that seems to feed on smaller fishes by day and crustaceans after dark. Spawning occurs in late summer.

Age and growth
Age and growth studies indicate a maximum age of 30 years (Craig et al. 1999).

Reproduction
Recent unpublished data confirms protogyny (B. Erisman pers. comm.)

Species does not appear to form aggregations in the Gulf of California (B. Erisman pers. comm.)

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 5227)
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Depth range based on 71 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 17 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.16 - 120
  Temperature range (°C): 23.233 - 27.666
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.162 - 5.562
  Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.040
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.243 - 4.879
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.643
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 4.567

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.16 - 120

Temperature range (°C): 23.233 - 27.666

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.162 - 5.562

Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.040

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.243 - 4.879

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.643

Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 4.567
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 5 - 30m.
From 5 to 30 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Adults are most abundant in shallow water and also occurs to a depth of at least 30 m. Inhabits rocky area of coastal waters within continental shelf (Ref. 11035). A solitary predator that seems to feed on smaller fishes by day and crustaceans after dark. Carnivore (Ref. 57615).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12 External link.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epinephelus labriformis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Craig, M.T., Rocha, L., Choat, J.H., Ferreira, B. & Bertoncini, A.A.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Epinephelus labriformis is listed as a species of Least Concern since it is a widespread and common species not currently in decline.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
General
Epinephelus labriformis is a very common species throughout its range, especially common in the Galápagos Islands and off Mazatian and Puerto Vallarta (central Mexico).

Fishery dependent
Anecdotal reports indicate that the species has not declined substantially in Loreto (Baja California).

Genetics
Recent genetic survey indicates strong population connectivity throughout entire range.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Epinephelus labriformis is in subsistence, artisinal, sub-national fisheries, but it is currently not considered a major threat.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Epinephelus labriformis occurs in protected areas throughout its range.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this genus
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