Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found usually on soft muddy or sandy bottoms. Also on rocky bottoms, in estuaries, bays and continental shelf (Ref. 9563). In New Zealand, most abundant in 200 to 300 m along the edge of the continental shelf. May be found at depths exceeding 700 m (Ref. 9258). Feeds primarily on fishes, cephalopods, crabs and other crustaceans. Utilized as frozen fillets as well as fish blocks; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Distribution

Southwest Pacific: New Zealand and around Australia, at least from Sydney to Adelaide, and around Tasmania. Often confused with Pseudophycis barbata (Ref.9563).
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Southwestern Pacific: southeastern Australia and New Zealand.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Analspines: 0
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Size

Maximum size: 900 mm TL
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Max. size

90.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371))
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Diagnostic Description

Nostrils anterior to eye by about one-third of snout length. Pyloric caeca 6 to 8. Color reddish pink becoming paler ventrally, vertical fins with dark margins; a dark black blotch on the pectoral fin base.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 26 - 700 m (Ref. 58489), usually 200 - 300 m (Ref. 54741)
  • Stevenson, M.L. 2004 Trawl survey of the west coast of the South Island and Tasman and Golden Bays, March-april 2003 (KAH0304). New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2004/4. 69 p. (Ref. 58489)
  • FAO-FIGIS 2005 A world overview of species of interest to fisheries. Chapter: Pseudophycis bachus. Retrieved on 01 July 2005, from www.fao.org/figis/servlet/species?fid=2231. 2p. FIGIS Species Fact Sheets. Species Identification and Data Programme-SIDP, FAO-FIGIS (Ref. 54741)
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Depth range based on 4331 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1957 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 4 - 1056.5
  Temperature range (°C): 2.628 - 18.232
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.209 - 32.801
  Salinity (PPS): 34.195 - 35.540
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.361 - 6.646
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.263 - 2.263
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.040 - 47.204

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 4 - 1056.5

Temperature range (°C): 2.628 - 18.232

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.209 - 32.801

Salinity (PPS): 34.195 - 35.540

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.361 - 6.646

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.263 - 2.263

Silicate (umol/l): 1.040 - 47.204
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 700m.
Recorded at 700 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pseudophycis bachus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
  • Annala, J.H. (comp.) 1994 Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 1994: stock assessments and yield estimates. Unpublished report held in MAF Fisheries Greta Point library, Wellington. 242 p. (Ref. 9072)
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Wikipedia

Red codling

The red codling or hoka,[1] Pseudophycis bachus, is a morid cod of the genus Pseudophycis, found around southern Australia and New Zealand, from the surface to 700 m. Its length is up to 90 cm. P. bachus is a food source for the diving yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. 2006

References[edit]

  • Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Pseudophycis bachus" in FishBase. March 2006 version.
  • Tony Ayling & Geoffrey Cox (1982). Collins Guide to the Sea Fishes of New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: William Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-00-216987-8.
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