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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found over muddy and sandy bottoms in coastal waters and in estuaries where the nursery and feeding grounds are located. Adults form schools. Feeding habits vary with ontogenic development and season; juveniles feed on benthic migratory crustaceans and sessile boring mollusks while adults are benthos-feeders and occasionally capture fish (Ref. 27). Undergoes seasonal migration. An important food fish which is usually marketed fresh and salted.
  • Isaac, V.J. 1988 Synopsis of biological data on the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823). FAO Fish. Synop. (150). (Ref. 27)
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: Greater Antilles and from Costa Rica to Argentina (Ref. 9626). Also reported in Nicaragua (Ref. 13613).
  • Chao, L.N. 1978 Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3702)
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Southwestern Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 26 - 30; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 7 - 9
  • Uyeno, T., K. Matsuura and E. Fujii (eds.) 1983 Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo, Japan. 519 p. (Ref. 13608)
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Size

Maximum size: 600 mm TL
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Max. size

60.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 27363)); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 27)
  • Nakamura, I., T. Inada, M. Takeda and H. Hatanaka 1986 Important fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo. 369 p. (Ref. 27363)
  • Isaac, V.J. 1988 Synopsis of biological data on the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823). FAO Fish. Synop. (150). (Ref. 27)
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Diagnostic Description

Body silvery with a golden cast, back greyish, with distinct oblique dark streaks along scale rows extending to much below lateral line; spinous dorsal without small dark dots (Ref. 27363).
  • Uyeno, T., K. Matsuura and E. Fujii (eds.) 1983 Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo, Japan. 519 p. (Ref. 13608)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range ? - 60 m (Ref. 9626), usually 20 - 40 m (Ref. 9626)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 44 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 29 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.4 - 142
  Temperature range (°C): 7.904 - 27.555
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.301 - 14.902
  Salinity (PPS): 31.427 - 37.096
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.363 - 5.894
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.095 - 1.676
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.250 - 11.021

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.4 - 142

Temperature range (°C): 7.904 - 27.555

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.301 - 14.902

Salinity (PPS): 31.427 - 37.096

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.363 - 5.894

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.095 - 1.676

Silicate (umol/l): 1.250 - 11.021
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 60m.
Recorded at 60 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Found over muddy and sandy bottoms in coastal waters and in estuaries where the nursery and feeding grounds are located. Adults form schools. Feeding habits vary with ontogenic development and season; juveniles feed on benthic migratory crustaceans and sessile boring mollusks while adults are benthos-feeders and occasionally capture fish (Ref. 27). Juveniles 10 cm TL were capable of consuming larger prey items than those in their stomachs, indicating that the maximum size of prey eaten was not constrained by mouth gape (Ref. 55704). Undergoes seasonal migration.
  • Isaac, V.J. 1988 Synopsis of biological data on the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823). FAO Fish. Synop. (150). (Ref. 27)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Micropogonias furnieri

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CCTCTACCTGATTTTTGGTGCATGAGCCGGAATAATCGGCACAGCTTTAAGCCTACTGATTCGAGCCGAACTTAGCCAACCTGGCGCACTCCTCGGAGACGACCAAATCTATAACGTAATCGTTACGGCGCATGCCTTCGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCCATCATAATTGGAGGCTTCGGAAACTGACTTGTACCTCTAATGATTGGAGCCCCCGATATAGCATTCCCTCGGATGAATAATATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCCCCTTCTTTCCTGCTACTCCTAACCTCCTCAGGAGTAGAGGCAGGTGCCGGAACAGGCTGAACAGTCTACCCTCCCCTCGCCGGAAATCTTGCACACGCAGGAGCCTCTGTCGACTTAGCCATTTTCTCCCTTCATCTCGCAGGTGTTTCATCAATTTTAGGGGCTATTAACTTTATTACAACAATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCAGCCATCTCCCAGTATCAGACACCTCTATTTGTATGAGCCGTTTTAATTACAGCTGTCCTACTTCTACTTTCACTTCCTGTCCTAGCCGCCGGCATTACAATGCTTCTAACAGACCGCAACCTAAATACAACCTTTTTTGACCCGGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATTCTTTACCAACACTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Micropogonias furnieri

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 26
Specimens with Barcodes: 36
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
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