Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: flounder (English), lenguado (Espanol)
 
Etropus peruvianus Hildebrand, 1946


Peruvian flounder


Body relatively slender (height 34-45% of SL); head blunt, short, length 25-29% of SL; eyes on left side, eyes ~ parallel, upper eye below edge of head, with crest behind it; mouth very small, 21-25% of head, ends under front edge of pupil; jaws on blind side arched; most of teeth on blind side, in 1 row on each jaw, none enlarged; lower gill rakers 5-9; dorsal rays 79-86; anal rays 62-68; base of eye side pelvic on midline of body, 6 pelvic fin rays;  pectoral fin 80% of head length; tail fin with blunt angular point; urinary papilla on blind side, immediately behind anus; lateral line starts at top corner of operculum, relatively straight; scales small, rough, easily dislodged, without small accessory scales; 41-48 lateral line scales.

Eye side grey-brown, large dark blotch behind operculum that extends back along lower flank behind pectoral, fins paler than body, with dark speckles, pectoral with outer 1/3 dark; blind side pale.

Size: 10 cm.

Habitat: shallow soft bottoms.

Depth: 0-45 m.

The Gulf of California to northern Peru.
   
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Biology

Inhabits bottoms with mud or rubble, near the coast up to a depth of 46 m. Occasionally exploited with encircling nets. Utilized fresh or as fishmeal.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Baja California and the Gulf of California to northern Peru.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.
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Eastern central Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 45 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 10.0 (S)
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Type Information

Type for Etropus peruvianus
Catalog Number: USNM 128166
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): M. Lobell
Year Collected: 1941
Locality: Peru: Sechura Bay, Nonora Bay, Peru, Pacific
  • Type:
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Paratype for Etropus peruvianus
Catalog Number: USNM 88830
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): W. Schmitt
Year Collected: 1926
Locality: Paita, Peru, Peru, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Paratype for Etropus peruvianus
Catalog Number: USNM 128167
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): M. Lobell
Year Collected: 1941
Locality: Peru: Paita Bay, Off Pta Telegrafo, Peru, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Paratype for Etropus peruvianus
Catalog Number: USNM 41352
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: Ecuador To Panama, Panama, Pacific
Depth (m): 29 to 29
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This benthic species inhabits sandy, rubble and muddy bottoms near the coast to a depths of 125m (Hensley, 1995).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range ? - 46 m (Ref. 9330)
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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 60
  Temperature range (°C): 23.629 - 23.629
  Nitrate (umol/L): 16.805 - 16.805
  Salinity (PPS): 34.631 - 34.631
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.460 - 2.460
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.485 - 1.485
  Silicate (umol/l): 12.680 - 12.680

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 60
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 46m.
Recorded at 46 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Inhabits bottoms with mud or rubble, near the coast up to a depth of 46 m. Occasionally exploited with encircling nets. Utilized fresh or as fishmeal.
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
van der Heiden, A.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is common throughout its range. There are no major threats for this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is moderately common throughout its range. There is no other population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. It is sometimes caught as by-catch in industrial shrimp fisheries.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order
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