Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: flounder (English), lenguado (Espanol)
 
Etropus ectenes Jordan in Jordan & Goss, 1889

Sole flounder


Body relatively slender (height 39-48% of SL); head pointed, small, length 21-25% of SL; eyes on left side, upper eye at edge of head and partly over midline crest that extends between eyes; mouth very small, 20-25% of head, ends under front edge of eye; jaws on blind side arched; most of teeth on blind side, in 1 row on each jaw, none enlarged; lower gill rakers 8-9; dorsal rays 88-96; anal rays 68-78; base of eye side pelvic on midline of body, 6 pelvic fin rays;  pectoral fin 67-77% of head length; tail fin with blunt angular point; urinary papilla on blind side, immediately behind anus; lateral line starts at top corner of operculum, relatively straight; scales small, rough, easily dislodged, without small accessory scales; 50-59 lateral line scales.


Eye side grey to grey-brown, with dark blotches, fins spotted, eye-side pectoral with irregular bars; blind side pale.

Size: 24 cm.

Habitat: shallow soft bottoms, including estuaries.

Depth: 0-50 m.

Panama to Peru.
   
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Biology

Inhabits soft bottoms of shallow waters, including estuaries. Utilized fresh or as fishmeal.
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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Distribution

Range Description

This eastern tropical Pacific species is found from Panama to Peru.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, Panamic province endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Colombia to Peru.
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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Eastern Pacific off northwestern South America.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 50 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 24.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 200 mm TL
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Max. size

20.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9330))
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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Type Information

Cotype for Etropus ectenes
Catalog Number: USNM 120408
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Paraca Bay, S.a., Peru, Pacific
  • Cotype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits sandy and muddy substrata and can also be common in estuaries and mangroves. It feeds on benthic invertebrates and small fishes; and it has pelagic eggs and larvae (Hensley 1995). It is found to 50m.

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 11 - 157.3
  Temperature range (°C): 16.508 - 16.508
  Nitrate (umol/L): 20.501 - 20.501
  Salinity (PPS): 34.943 - 34.943
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.882 - 1.882
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.732 - 1.732
  Silicate (umol/l): 16.187 - 16.187

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 11 - 157.3
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel, Estuary

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T., Tyler, J. & Bussing, W.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a wide distribution in the southern tropical eastern Pacific. It has no major threats and can be found in Marine Protected Areas. Therefore this species is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution may be included in some Marine Protected Areas in the eastern tropical Pacific region. More information about the population structure for this species is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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